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Irene Gold:Pathology

Pathology for Part 1 Boards

QuestionAnswer
NAME THE TYPE OF DEGENERATION: Calcium infiltration into normal tissue e.g. hypervitaminosis D Calcification, metastatic
NAME THE TYPE OF DEGENERATION: Calcium infiltration into abnormal/damaged tissue e.g. atherosclerosis or atheroma. damage to tunica intima Calcification, dystrophic
NAME THE TYPE OF DEGENERATION: Tuberculosis Caseous
NAME THE TYPE OF DEGENERATION: Albuminous, Membrane injured which affects ionic transfer Cloudy Swelling
NAME THE TYPE OF DEGENERATION: Infarction (MI), Blood vessels Coagulation
NAME THE TYPE OF DEGENERATION: Pancreas Enzymatic
NAME THE TYPE OF DEGENERATION: Liver, aka "nutmeg liver". In heart = "tabby cat heart". Fatty dot leads to fast streak leads to atheroma leads to fibroatheroma Fatty
NAME THE TYPE OF DEGENERATION: CNS (e.g. brain melts, tertiary syphilis, leprosy) or Skin (if from infection) Liquefaction
NAME THE TYPE OF DEGENERATION: Peripheral nerves. Degenerates to next Node of Ranvier. "Dying back phenomenon" Wallerian
NAME THE TYPE OF DEGENERATION: Hyaline. Most common in skeletal muscle. Muscle replaced with hyaline. Zener's (Waxy)
NAME THE TYPE OF DEGENERATION: Nuclear rupture Karyolysis
NAME THE TYPE OF DEGENERATION: Nuclear swelling Karyorrhexis
NAME THE TYPE OF DEGENERATION: Nuclear condensation Pyknosis
NAME THE TYPE OF DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGE: Absence of an organ (usually paired organ) Agenesis
NAME THE TYPE OF DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGE: Small remnants of the organ present (lack of development) Aplasia
NAME THE TYPE OF DEVELOPMENTAL CHANGE: Organ smaller than normal and defective Hypoplasia
NAME THE DISTURBANCE OF GROWTH: Decrease in size. Seen most commonly in muscle Atrophy
NAME THE DISTURBANCE OF GROWTH: Increase in size Hypertrophy
NAME THE DISTURBANCE OF GROWTH: Increase in number of cells Hyperplasia
NAME THE DISTURBANCE OF GROWTH: Changes from one cell type to another Metaplasia
NAME THE DISTURBANCE OF GROWTH: Change in size, shape or function a cell. Precancerous, but last stage that can reverse to normal Dysplasia
NAME THE DISTURBANCE OF GROWTH: Complete disorganization of a cell (cancer). Undifferentiated. Anaplasia
NAME THE COLLAGEN TYPE: Bone, muscle, tendons and ligaments Type 1 Collagen
NAME THE COLLAGEN TYPE: Disc (specifically nucleus pulposis) Type 2 Collagen
NAME THE COLLAGEN TYPE: Reticular collagen. Type 3 Collagen
NAME THE COLLAGEN TYPE: Found in spleen and lymph Type 3 Collagen
NAME THE COLLAGEN TYPE: Seen in early wound healing Type 3 Collagen
NAME THE COLLAGEN TYPE: Basement membrane Type 4 Collagen
NAME THE TYPE OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS: Silica from sand, rock, or glass. Sandblasters are at risk. Silicosis
NAME THE TYPE OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS: Asbestos leads to mesothelioma. Malignant tumor Asbestosis
NAME THE TYPE OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS: Iron dust Siderosis
NAME THE TYPE OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS: Cotton dust Byssinosis
NAME THE TYPE OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS: "Brown lung" Byssinosis
NAME THE TYPE OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS: Black lung disease from miners. Anthracosis
NAME THE TYPE OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS: "Rocky Quarry Disease" Silicosis
NAME THE TYPE OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS: "Caplan's Disease" Anthracosis + RA
NAME THE TYPE OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS: Endemic fungus around Mississippi or Ohio valleys "Ohio Valley Fever" "Mississippi Valley Fever" Histomycosis/Histoplasmosis
NAME THE TYPE OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS: Endemic fungus in deserts of Southwest Coccidiomycosis
NAME THE TYPE OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS: "San Joaquin Valley Fever" or "Valley Fever" Coccidiomycosis
NAME THE TYPE OF PNEUMOCONIOSIS: Endemic fungus on Eastern seaboard: From Florida to Nova Scotia Blastomycosis
NAME THE LUNG DISEASE: Sputum analysis yields "Curschmann's Spirals" or "Charcot Leyden crystals" Asthma
NAME THE LUNG DISEASE: Affects chloride channels Cystic Fibrosis
NAME THE LUNG DISEASE: "Sweat test" / Salty baby syndrome Cystic Fibrosis
NAME THE LUNG DISEASE: Affects GI and respiratory mucus linings and exocrine secretions. Cystic Fibrosis
NAME THE LUNG DISEASE: Susceptible to Pseudomonas aeruginosa Cystic Fibrosis
NAME THE LUNG DISEASE: Iron in lungs due to bleeding Hemosiderosis
NAME THE LUNG DISEASE: Honeycomb lung Pulmonary fibrosis
NAME THE LUNG DISEASE: Caseous fibrosis in lung. Tuberculosis
NAME THE LUNG DISEASE: Gohn complex/lesions Tuberculosis
NAME THE LUNG DISEASE: If TB spreads to spine Pott's Disease
NAME THE LUNG DISEASE: If vertebra collapses from TB Gibbus deformity
NAME THE LUNG DISEASE: Granulomas, Epitheliod Histiocytes, Giant Epithelial Cells Tuberculosis
NAME THE LUNG DISEASE: Vasculitis of the lung and kidney Wegener's granulomatosis
NAME THE LUNG DISEASE: Alpha-1-antitrypsin deficiency Emphysema
NAME THE RENAL DISEASE: Decreased tubular excretion of nitrogen (increase nitrogen in blood) Azotemia
NAME THE RENAL DISEASE: Most commonly caused by prostate problems or ureter stones Hydronephrosis
NAME THE RENAL DISEASE: "nephrolithiasis" Kidney Stones
NAME THE RENAL DISEASE: Most common type of kidney stone Calcium Oxalate
NAME THE RENAL DISEASE: Pain pattern of kidney stone Starts in back and radiates to the flanks, once stone is in ureters, pain localizes in groin
NAME THE RENAL DISEASE: RBC and small amounts of protein in urine Nephritic Syndrome (e.g. acute glomerulonephritis)
NAME THE RENAL DISEASE: "pre-eclampsia" and ecclampsia Nephrotic Syndrome
NAME THE RENAL DISEASE: "HEP" Hypertension, Edema, Proteinuria (massive) Pre-ecclampsia
NAME THE RENAL DISEASE: HEP + convulsions + coma (can be fatal) Ecclampsia
NAME THE RENAL DISEASE: Moth eaten appearance Polycystic kidney
NAME THE RENAL DISEASE: Acute tubular necrosis Shock
NAME THE RENAL DISEASE: "nephroblastoma" Wilm's
NAME THE RENAL DISEASE: Mixed tumor of kidney in children (malignant) Wilm's
NAME THE THYROID OR ADRENAL DISEASE: Low cortisol, hypoadrenia, low BP, hyperpigmentation Addison's
NAME THE THYROID OR ADRENAL DISEASE: Excess ACTH in Addison's disease causes... Increased MSH (melanocyte stimulating hormone), fatigue
NAME THE THYROID OR ADRENAL DISEASE: Excess Aldosterone (zone glomerulosa) hypertension, water retention Conn's
NAME THE THYROID OR ADRENAL DISEASE: Excess cortisol (zone fasiculata), hyperadrenia, moon face, buffalo hump, purple striae, central obesity Cushing's
NAME THE THYROID OR ADRENAL DISEASE: Hyperplasia of thyroid cells due to lack of iodine Goiter
NAME THE THYROID OR ADRENAL DISEASE: Hyperthyroidism, causes exopthalamoses, heat intolerance, weight loss, rapid heart rate, hair loss Grave's Disease
NAME THE THYROID OR ADRENAL DISEASE: Autoimmune cause of hypothyroidism Hashimotos
NAME THE THYROID OR ADRENAL DISEASE: Hypothyroidism, cretinism in children, cold intolerance, weight gain, slower heart rate, loss of lateral 1/3 eyebrow, slow mental faculties Myxedema
NAME THE UROGENITAL DISEASE: HPV 16 virus implicated Cervical cancer
NAME THE UROGENITAL DISEASE: Can cause testicular cancer Cryptochism
NAME THE UROGENITAL DISEASE: Most common site is the ovary Endometriosis
NAME THE UROGENITAL DISEASE: Urethra exits on the dorsal surface of the penis Epispadias
NAME THE UROGENITAL DISEASE: Urethra opens on ventral surface of penis Hypospadias
NAME THE UROGENITAL DISEASE: Pregnancy or hydatidiform mole (non-viable embryo that has implanted) Increased HcG
NAME THE UROGENITAL DISEASE: Tumor of smooth muscle. Fibroids in uterus. Leiomyoma
NAME THE UROGENITAL DISEASE: Anovulation, obesity, hirsutism Polycystic ovarian disease
NAME THE UROGENITAL DISEASE: Cancer of testes, most common cause of testicular cancer, mesenchymal/stem cells Seminoma
5 Congenital Signs of Syphilis Hutchinson's teeth, Rhagades, Saddle nose deformity, Sabre blade tibia, Interstitial keratitis, and possibly deafness (not always)
Define Hutchinson's teeth Notched permanent upper incisors
Define Rhagades Fissures or cracks at edge of mouth
Define Saddle Nose Deformity Bridge of nose flattened
Define Interstitial Keratitis Produces visual changes
Organism of Syphilis Treponema pallidum
Primary stage of Syphilis Hard singular painless nodule (chancre) on perineum
Secondary stage of Syphilis Maculopapular rash and condyloma lata (flat warts on the vulva)
Latency stage of Syphilis May or may not have symptoms
Tertiary stage of Syphilis Tabes dorsalis, aortic aneurysm, gummas inclusion body in CNS, Argyll Roberston "Prostitute's Pupil": not react to light, but constricts on accomodation
Adie's pupil Tonic pupil dilation (mydriasis) due to injury to CN lll Edinger Westphal nucleus
Miosis Tonic pupil constriction due to injury to sympathetic cervical ganglia
NAME VENEREAL DISEASES: Soft painless red spherical lump caused by haemophilus ducreyi Chancroid
NAME VENEREAL DISEASES: Similar to Trichimonas, except bacterial Gardnerella vaginalis
NAME VENEREAL DISEASES:Gram Negative, Diplococcus, PID/Salpingitis, burning urination, pus in urine, may produce arthritis DJD in knee, "coffee bean shaped" organism on microscopy Gonorrhea
NAME VENEREAL DISEASES: Produces rectal strictures, diagnose with Frei tests, chlamydia=organism Lymphogranuloma venereum
NAME VENEREAL DISEASES: Purulent vaginal discharge, green and frothy, fish, foul, protozoan Trichimonas
NAME THE GI DISORDER: Spasm of lower esophageal sphincter, causes megaesophagus of upper esophagus, lack of motility Achalasia
NAME THE GI DISORDER: Metaplasia of esophageal cells into stomach cells, caused by GERD Barrett's Esophagus
NAME THE GI DISORDER: Occlusion of hepatic veins - triad of abdominal pain, ascites and hepatomegaly Budd-Chiari
NAME THE GI DISORDER: Intolerance to gluten, loss of villi, therefore loss of absorption Celiac Syndrome / "non-tropical spruce"
NAME THE GI DISORDER: Inflammation of gallbladder, #1 cause of gallstones Cholecystitis
NAME THE GI DISORDER: Gallstones Cholelithiasis
NAME THE GI DISORDER: Affects ileum, cecum and ascending colon (right sided problem). Crohn's
NAME THE GI DISORDER: Regional ileitis, distal ileitis, regional ileitis, leads to dehydration Crohn's
NAME THE GI DISORDER: Skip lesions or cobblestone appearance Crohn's
NAME THE GI DISORDER: NO bloody diarrhea Crohn's
NAME THE GI DISORDER: Outpouching in the intestine (usually sigmoid and descending) Diverticula
NAME THE GI DISORDER: Difficulty swallowing Dysphagia
NAME THE GI DISORDER: Most common cause of death of children worldwide due to dehydration from diarrhea Enteritis
NAME THE GI DISORDER: Most common cause of stark red blood in stool Hemorroids
NAME THE GI DISORDER: Congenital megacolon, absence of myenteric plexus (parasympathetic motor plexus) Hirschbrung's
NAME THE GI DISORDER: Telescoping of intestine onto itself, can be caused by rotavirus vaccine Intussusception
NAME THE GI DISORDER: Spastic colon, distention, pain, diarrhea, stress related Irritable bowel
NAME THE GI DISORDER: Hematemesis due to alcoholism, lacerations of esophagus and proximal stomach Mallory-Weiss Syndrome
NAME THE GI DISORDER: Outpouching of distal ileum Meckel's Diverticulum
NAME THE GI DISORDER: Polyposis characterized by polyps in the entire GI tract Peutzjegher's
NAME THE GI DISORDER: Iron deficiency anemia, cheilosis, esophageal webbing and glossitis Plummer Vinson syndrome
NAME THE GI DISORDER: Infant projectile vomiting Pyloric stenosis
NAME THE GI DISORDER: Anatomically shortened esophagus Sliding hiatal hernia
NAME THE GI DISORDER: Fat in stool, problem with gallbladder Steatosis
NAME THE GI DISORDER: Toxic megacolon, affects left side of abdomen (descending colon, sigmoid colon) Ulcerative Colitis
NAME THE GI DISORDER: Bloody diarrhea Ulcerative Colitis
NAME THE GI DISORDER: Twisting of an organ around its long axis Volvulus
NAME THE GI DISORDER: Outpouching of the esophagus Zenker's diverticulum
NAME THE METABOLIC DISORDER: Decreased ADH due to posterior pituitary problem. Causes dehydration Diabetes Insipidus
NAME THE METABOLIC DISORDER: Decreased production of insulin by beta cells of pancreas. 1st seen in eyes. Most commonly die from renal failure or heart disease. Diabetes mellitus
NAME THE METABOLIC DISORDER: Produces polydipsia (increased thirst), polyuria (increased urination) and polyphagia (increased hunger) Diabetes mellitus
NAME THE METABOLIC DISORDER: Iron in organs and skin "bronze diabetes" Hemochromatosis
NAME THE METABOLIC DISORDER:Protein malnutrition Kwashiokor
NAME THE METABOLIC DISORDER: Calorie malnutrition, includes protein Marasmus
NAME THE METABOLIC DISORDER:Inborn error of copper metabolism. Hepatolenticular degeneration. Kayser Fleisher rings Wilson's
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Lou Gehrig's Disease ALS
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Anterior horn and corticospinal tract affected with no sensory loss ALS
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Motor only. LMN in upper extremities and UMN in lower. Progressive. ALS
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Neurofibrillary tangles, decrease in acetylcholine. Alzheimer's
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: #1 cause of dementia Alzheimer's
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Progressive severe atrophy of cerebellar cortex Alzheimer's
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Cerebellar tonsils herniate Type 1 Arnold Chiari
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Cerebellar tonsils herniate with meningiomyelocele in lumbar spine Type 2 Arnold Chiari
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Most common metastasis is from the the lungs to the... brain
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Most common brain tumor, best prognosis, in CNS Astrocytoma Type 1 & 2
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Most brain tumor common in CNS Glioma
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Worst prognosis of brain tumor (affects cerebrum) Glioblastoma multiform
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Most common brain tumor seen in cerebellar vermis in children, most common cerebellar tumor Medulloblastoma
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Slowest growing brain tumor (affects cerebrum) Oligodendroglioma
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Acoustic neuroma. Onion bulb tumor. Schwannoma (CN Vll)
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Lesions of sclerosis of the spinocerebellar tract . Chromosome 9. Friedrich's ataxia
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Post-infectious polyradiculopathy, most commonly after flu or vaccination Guillan-Barre
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Peripheral demyelinating disease. Areflexia & ascending paralysis. Fatal if hits diaphragm. Guillan-Barre
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Interruption of cervical sympathetics (pan coast tumor) Horner's Syyndrome
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Ptosis, Miosis, Anhydroisis, Enophtalmosis Horner's Syndrome
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Hansen's Disease Leprosy
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Liquefactive necrosis, skin damage and destruction of sensory nerves Leprosy
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Central demyelination and plaquing of the spinal cord or brain. Affects distal muscles and causes visual disturbances MS
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Charcot's triad (SIN) - scanning speech, intention tremor, nystagmus. Affects corticospinal tracts MS
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Formation of antibodies that block the ACh receptors at myoneural junction. Thymic enlargement (thyoma). Myasthenia Gravis
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: First starts in ocular muscles, gets worse at end of day. Jaw is tight and sore. Females 20-40. Myasthenia Gravis
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Von Recklinghausen's Disease Neurofibromatosis
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Cafe au Lait spots. "Coast of California" appearance. Neurofibromatosis
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Problem with dopamine in basal ganglia. Inclusion bodies = Lewy bodies Parkinson's
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Resting tremor, festinating/shuffling gait and propulsive gait. Cogwheel rigidity. Parkinson's
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Substantia Nigra affected Parkinson's
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Schwann cell tumor Onion bulb tumor
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Combined systems disease PLS
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Dorsal columns and corticospinal tracts affected. Results form long term pernicious anemia (decreased IF or B12) PLS
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Affects anterior horn, produces LMNL. Affects brainstem, then cranial nerves affected Poliomyelitis
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Cyst like formation from the central canal of spinal cord that leads to loss of pain and temp and signs of an upper motor neuron lesion Syringomyelia
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Cape like distribution. Loss of pain and temp bilaterally Syringomyelia
NAME THE NERVOUS SYSTEM DISEASE: Alcoholic psychosis with dementia. Depletion of thiamine (B1) due to severe alcoholism. Wernicke-Korsakoff
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Tumor of glandular tissue Adenoma
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Benign bone tumor. Eccentric. "Blister of Bone" <20 y.o.a. Aneurismal Bone Cyst (ABC)
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Encapsulated. Short zone of transition. Asymptomatic. Benign tumor
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Tumor shaped radio lucency due to loss of bone density from hyperparathyroidism (PTH) Brown's tumor
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Starry sky appearance. Jaw mass. Central African child. Epstein Barr Virus Burkett's lymphoma
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Wasting away Cachexia
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Cancer of the epithelial tissue, usually spread by lymph system Carcinoma
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Cancer that has not invaded basement membrane Carcinoma in situ
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Benign bone tumor. <20 yoa. Epiphyseal/meatphyseal Chondroblastoma
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Benign tumor of cartilage Chondroma
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Cancer that is most commonly seen in sacrum. Crosses joints. Chordoma
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: GI cancer mostly found in US. Colorectal cancer
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Absence of one or both testicles in scrotum (failure of descent of the testes) Cryptorchidism
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Benign hand tumor. Stippled calcification. Enchondroma (Ollier's Disease)
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: 2+ enchondromas Multiple enchondromatosis
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Endchondromatosis + soft tissue swelling + bone deformity = Maffuci's Syndrome
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Multi-laminated (onion skin appearance) periosteal reaction. Cortical saucerization. Children 10-25. Moth eaten appearance in medulla that mimics osteomyelitis Ewing's Sarcoma
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Most common breast tumor associated with estrogen Fibroadenoma of Breast
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Myxomatous tissue. Spindled and polyhedral cells. Fibroma
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Benign tumor, ground glass appearance, cafe au last spots "coast of maine" appearance Fibrous Dysplasia
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Monostotic form of fibrous dysplasia rind sign sclerosis
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Fibrous dysplasia with early puberty Albright's disease
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Tumor of osteoclasts. Osteoclastoma. Most common in knee. Quasi-malignant. Age 20-40. Epiphyseal/Meatphyseal Giant Cell Tumor
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Benign tumor of blood vessels most commonly found in spine Hemangioma
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Most common primary liver cancer aka hepatoma Heaptocellular liver cancer
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: "Hans-Schuller-Christian disease" "eosionophlic granuloma" Lipid accumulates and becomes vertebra plans Histiocytosis X
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Pel-epstein fever. Reed Sternberg cells, hepatopsplenomegaly, enlarged lymph nodes, increase IgE Hodgkin's Lymphoma
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Cancer of stomach that metastasizes to ovaries, signet ring cell tumor Krukenberg's
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: White patch soon oral mucosa from tobacco. Cannot be wiped off. Precancerous. Leukoplakia
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Fatty tumor Lipoma
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Most common lung cancer with non-smokers, best prognosis Adenocarcinoma
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Worst prognosis lung cancer Oat cell and small cell
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Most common lung cancer in smokers Squamous cell
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Another way you can get lung cancer Arsenic poisoning from treated wood
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Non-encapsulated. Long zone of transition. Pain at night, deep and boring. Weight loss Malignant tumors
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Most common form of cancer in bones Metastasis
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Between heads of 3-4 metatarsals Morton's neuroma
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Most common primary bone malignancy in adults Multiple Myeloma
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Inclusion bodes are Russell bodies Multiple Myeloma
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Xray has punched out lesions, raindrop skull Multiple Myeloma
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: IgG M-Spike, Bence Jones proteinurea, Elevated ESR, reverse A/G ratio Multiple Myeloma
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: "Plasma cell leukemia/sarcoma" Multiple Myeloma
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Most common benign cardiac tumor and most common cardiac tumor Myxoma
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Most commonly seen in neural arch age 10-30, bone related Osteoblastoma
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Most common benign tumor of extremities Osteochrondroma
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Multiple osteochondromas Hereditary Multiple Exostosis (HME)
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Osteochondroma "Bump in the bone" Sessile
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Osteochondroma with cartilaginous cap appearance, coat hanger's exostosis, mushroom projection Pedunculated
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Paine worse at night, relieved by aspirin, radiolucent nidus with reactive sclerosis Osteoid Osteoma
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Most common benign tumor of the skull, most common in frontal sinus Osteoma
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Usually from Staph aureus. Sequestrum, involcrum, cloaca. Brodie's access if chronic. Osteomyelitis
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Most common primary bone cancer in children (10-30) Osteosarcoma
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Worst prognosis of cancer. Very painful. Pancreatic Cancer
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Associated with warts Papilloma
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Neuroblastoma, benign tumor of adrenal medulla. Causes episodic hypertension. Pheochromocytoma
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Tumor of striated muscle or heart muscle Rhabdomyoma
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Cancer of connective tissue, usually spread vascular system Sarcoma
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Bening bone tumor. Metaphyseal/diaphyseal. Concentric. "fallen fragment sign" age <20. found in long bones Simple/unicameral bone cyst (SBC/UBC)
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Most common in lesser curvature. "leather bottle" shaped stomach presentation Stomach cancer
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Tumor of all 3 germinal layers Teratoma
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Enlarged supraclavicular lymph nodes due to metastasis usually GI tract usually left side Virchow's nodes
NAME THE TUMOR, CANCER, OR CYST: Yellow tumor of connective tissue Xanthoma
IMMUNE & BLOOD TERMINOLOGY: Absence of oxygen Anoxia
IMMUNE & BLOOD TERMINOLOGY: Deficiency of oxygen Hypoxia
IMMUNE & BLOOD TERMINOLOGY: Pathogens or toxins in blood Septicemia
IMMUNE & BLOOD TERMINOLOGY: Bacteria in blood Bacteremia
IMMUNE & BLOOD TERMINOLOGY: Movement of WBCs along concentration gradient of tissue damage byproducts Chemotaxis
IMMUNE & BLOOD TERMINOLOGY: White blood cells lining the damaged vessels Pavementing/margination
IMMUNE & BLOOD TERMINOLOGY: Neutrophils and monocytes squeeze through the walls of blood vessels towards site of damaged tissue or infection Diapedesis aka Leukocyte extravasation
IMMUNE & BLOOD TERMINOLOGY: Fibrinogen into fibrin via thromboplastin Clot
IMMUNE & BLOOD TERMINOLOGY: Platelet deposition Thrombus
IMMUNE & BLOOD TERMINOLOGY: Foreign body in the blood travels Embolus
IMMUNE & BLOOD TERMINOLOGY: Fluid and high protein (damaged capillary wall) Exudate
IMMUNE & BLOOD TERMINOLOGY: Fluid and low protein (normal capillary wall) Transudate
5 Stages of Inflammation Injury, vasoconstriction, vasodilation, swelling/edema, healing
NAME STAGE OF INFLAMMATION: Tissue is damaged Injury
NAME STAGE OF INFLAMMATION: Sympathetic reaction. Wound does not spew blood unless artery is damaged. Vasoconstriction
NAME STAGE OF INFLAMMATION: Bring more blood to injured site. Histamine and Bradykinin present. Vasodilation
NAME STAGE OF INFLAMMATION: Cells move into damaged area. Chemotaxis leads to diapedesis Swelling/edema
NAME STAGE OF INFLAMMATION: Mast cells make heparin and serotonin. Fibrin forms scar. Healing
INFLAMMATION: How is serotonin used for healing? Stimulates the myofibroblasts which cause constriction and form type 3 collagen for early wound healing
WHAT DOES THIS INFLAMMATORY SUBSTANCE CAUSE: Bradykinin/histamine Vasodilation (increase inflammation)
WHAT DOES THIS INFLAMMATORY SUBSTANCE CAUSE: Leukotrienes Inflammation pathway (increase inflammation)
WHAT DOES THIS INFLAMMATORY SUBSTANCE CAUSE: Prostoglandins ll Inflammation pathway (increase inflammation)
WHAT DOES THIS INFLAMMATORY SUBSTANCE CAUSE: Substance P Inflammation pathway (increase inflammation)
WHAT DOES THIS INFLAMMATORY SUBSTANCE CAUSE: Enkephalins/endorphins Pain control (decrease inflammation)
WHAT DOES THIS INFLAMMATORY SUBSTANCE CAUSE: NSAIDs Cycloxygenase (COX) inhibitor (decrease inflammation)
WHAT DOES THIS INFLAMMATORY SUBSTANCE CAUSE: Steroids Phospholipase A2 inhibitor (decrease inflammation)
NAME THE IMMUNE CELL: Become mast cells - make histamine, bradykinin, serotonin, heparin Basophils
NAME THE IMMUNE CELL: Transforms into plasma cells to make antibodies B-lymphocytes
NAME THE IMMUNE CELL: "BEN" Basophils, Eosinophils, Neutrophils Granulocytes
NAME THE IMMUNE CELL: Lymphocytes & Monocytes Agranulocytes
NAME THE IMMUNE CELL: Monocyte at tissue level (Kupffer, Microglia, Langerham) Macrophages
NAME THE IMMUNE CELL: "MEN" Monocytes, Eosinophils, Neutrophils Natural Killer cells
NAME THE IMMUNE CELL: CD4 cells that activate B cells T-Helper cells
NAME THE IMMUNE CELL: CD8 cells aka cytotoxic cells, destroys cancer, kills foreign antigens T-Killer cells
NAME THE IMMUNE CELL: T-regulatory cells that decrease immune system, slows antibody production T-Suppresor cells
NAME THE IMMUNE CELL: Where do T-lymphocytes mature? Thymus
NAME WHITE BLOOD CELL: Increase in acute bacterial infections and acute inflammation. 60% Neutrophils
NAME WHITE BLOOD CELL: Increase in viral conditions and chronic inflammation. 30% Lymphocytes
NAME WHITE BLOOD CELL: Chronic conditions. Changes into phagocytes at tissue level. 5-8% Monocytes
NAME WHITE BLOOD CELL: Increase in parasites and allergies. 2-4% Eosinophils
NAME WHITE BLOOD CELL: Like mast cells. Produce heparin & histamine. Increase conditions that cause histamine release. 0-0.5% Basophiles
IMMUNE: Natural Immunity involves what 4 things? Natural killer cells, mast cells, basophils, macrophage
IMMUNE: Explain acquired immunity Antigen -> macrophage (antigen presenting cell) presents antigen to CD4 cell -> produces lymphokines -> stimulates B lymphocytes -> converts to plasma cell -> produce antibodies
NAME BLOOD CELL DISORDER: Decrease in B-cells. Decreased IgG. most common primary immunodeficiency at birth. X-linked. Bruton's Agammaglobulinemia
NAME BLOOD CELL DISORDER: Hypoplasia of thymus. Primary T-cell deficiency at birth. DiGeorge's
NAME BLOOD CELL DISORDER: Starry sky appearance. Central Africa. Jaw swelling. Young African child. Burkett's lymphoma
NAME BLOOD CELL DISORDER: Pel Epstein fever, Biopsy: Reed Sternberg cells. Enlarged lymph nodes. Hepatosplenomegaly. Hodgkin's
NAME BLOOD CELL DISORDER: Leukemia of bone marrow. Affects plasma cells. Age 50+. Example of non-hodgkin's lymphoma. Multiple Myeloma
NAME BLOOD CELL DISORDER: Newborn without proper B or T-cells. Problem with bone marrow. In adult, most commonly due to aplastic anemia. Possibly from benzene poisoning. Severe combined immune deficiency
STEPS OF COAGULATION: Step 1 Injury -> thought to release thromboplastin (vitamin K)
STEPS OF COAGULATION: Step 2 Thromboplastin triggers production of prothrombin in liver
STEPS OF COAGULATION: Step 3 Prothrombin (using Vitamin K & Calcium) converts to thrombin
STEPS OF COAGULATION: Step 4 Fibrinogen (using thrombin) converts to fibrin (clot). Fibrinogen is also made in the liver. Positive feedback AKA "feed forward". More thrombin produced the more fibrin produced.
STEPS OF COAGULATION: Step 5 Clot breakdown: Fibrolysin/plasmin dissolve clots
NAME TYPE OF HEMOPHILIA: Von Willibrand disease. Decrease in platelet adhesion. 8 deficiency factor number. A
NAME TYPE OF HEMOPHILIA: Christmas Factor disease. X-chromosome where female is the carrier. 9 deficiency factor number B
NAME TYPE OF HEMOPHILIA: Stuart Factor. 10 factor number. B
NAME TYPE OF HEMOPHILIA: Mild. 11 deficiency factor number. C
NAME TYPE OF HEMOPHILIA: Hageman Factor. 12 factor number. C
NAME THE TYPE OF ANEMIA: Decreased RBCs and WBCs in the blood. Caused by benzene poisoning. Aplastic Anemia
NAME TYPE OF HEMOPHILIA: Decreased RBCs, WBCs, and platelets in the blood Pancytopenia
NAME TYPE OF HEMOPHILIA: Decreased platelets in the blood Thrombocytopenia
NAME THE TYPE OF ANEMIA: Chronic blood loss (menses), microcytic, hypo chronic Iron Deficiency Anemia
NAME THE TYPE OF ANEMIA: Lack of intrinsic factor (gastritis) Pernicious Anemia
NAME THE TYPE OF ANEMIA: In pregnancy. Megaloblastic anemia. Can lead to spina bifida Folic Acid
NAME THE TYPE OF ANEMIA: Seen in vegetarians (microcyte, hypo chronic anemia) B-12
ANEMIA: Causes of loss of blood Hemorrhage, chronic blood loss, hemolytic breakdown due to sickle cell or malaria, Thalassemia major, erythroblastosis fetalis (Rh+)
NAME THE TYPE OF ANEMIA: Increased RBCs. Primary and Secondary forms. Primary is pathological. Secondary due to normal response to high altitudes. Polycythemia
If a newborn has deficiency of both B & T cells, which of the following is there atrophy of? Bone Marrow
NAME OF HEART AND BLOOD VESSEL DIEASE: Localized dilation of artery Aneurysm
NAME OF HEART AND BLOOD VESSEL DIEASE: Three types of aneurysms Berry in Circle of Willis (subarachnoid hemorrhage), Dissecting (longitudinal tearing away of the aorta), Abdominal aorta
NAME OF HEART AND BLOOD VESSEL DIEASE: Deposition of fatty plaque. Form of arteriosclerosis. Get irregularly distributed lipid deposits in the intima of large and medium sized arteries, causing narrowing of arterial lumens. Atherosclerosis
NAME OF HEART AND BLOOD VESSEL DIEASE: Thromboangitis obliterates. Low extremity, males with history of smoking. intermittent claudication Buerger's
NAME OF HEART AND BLOOD VESSEL DIEASE: Fluid in pericardial space. Prevents proper ventricular filling. Emergency! Cardiac Tamponade
NAME OF HEART AND BLOOD VESSEL DIEASE: Narrowing of aorta distal to left subclavian. Produces hypertension in upper extremities and hypotension in lower extremities. Coarction of aorta (congenital)
NAME OF HEART AND BLOOD VESSEL DIEASE: Tunica media of medium-sized arteries calcified. In smokers and diabetes Monkeberg's sclerosis
NAME OF HEART AND BLOOD VESSEL DIEASE: Coronary artery vasospasm Prinzmetal's angina
NAME OF HEART AND BLOOD VESSEL DIEASE: Vasospasm of arteries. Produce triphasic color change from pallor (white) to cyanosis (blue) to rubor (red). Can lead to dry gangrene. Typically in upper extremities of females with a history of smoking. Raynaud's
NAME OF HEART AND BLOOD VESSEL DIEASE: Half moon shaped RBC, "H-shaped vertebra", homozygous allele Sickle Cell anemia
NAME OF HEART AND BLOOD VESSEL DIEASE: Pulseless disease. Granulomatous inflammation of the aortic arch. Takayasu arteritis
NAME OF HEART AND BLOOD VESSEL DIEASE: Giant cells arteritis. Long standing hypertension. Can lead to blindness if affects ophthalmic artery. Elderly females. Temporal arteritis
NAME OF HEART AND BLOOD VESSEL DIEASE: DRIP D=Dextrorotation of aorta, R=Right ventricular hypertrophy, I=Interventricular septal defect, P=Pulmonic stenosis Tetralogy of Fallot (congenital)
NAME OF HEART AND BLOOD VESSEL DIEASE: Due to tooth extraction. Strep infection. Mitral valve affected. Valvular lesions
NAME OF LEUKEMIA: Most common seen in children Acute lymphoblastic
NAME OF LEUKEMIA: Any age. Most common acute leukemia in adults. Worst prognosis. Acute Myeloblastic
NAME OF LEUKEMIA: Most common chronic in adults. Chronic leukemia Chronic lymphocytic
NAME OF LEUKEMIA: Young adulthood, increased granulocytes, "philadelphia chromosome" #22 Chronic Myelocytic
NAME OF GENETIC DISEASE: Most common form of genetic dwarfism. Growth plates affected. Failure of normal epiphyseal cartilage formation. "Bullet vertebrae" "Trident Hand" Achondroplasia
NAME OF GENETIC DISEASE: Accumulation of homogentisic acid, blue-black deposits in cartilage. Causes ochronosis (calcification of discs in spine). Urine turns black on standing collection (can get increase of tyrosine). Alkaptonuria
NAME OF GENETIC DISEASE: Hereditary progressive peroneal muscle atrophy. Affects Tibialis Anterior also. Charcot Marie Tooth
NAME OF GENETIC DISEASE: Trisomy 21. Mental retardation. Flat hypo plastic face. Transverse palmar crease (Simian crease). Transposition with chromosome 14. Down's
NAME OF GENETIC DISEASE: Trisomy 18. Retardation. Edward's
NAME OF GENETIC DISEASE: Hereditary onset age 30-50. Basal ganglion affected. Atrophy of caudate. On chromosome #4. Decrease in GABA. Produces dementia and death Huntington's chorea
NAME OF GENETIC DISEASE: Arachnodactyly (spider-like fingers), subluxation or dislocation of the lens of the eye, dissecting aortic aneurysms, tall stature Marfan's
NAME OF GENETIC DISEASE: Defect in type 1 collagen, blue sclera, brittle bones Osteogenesis Imperfecta
NAME OF GENETIC DISEASE: Can't convert phenylalanine to tyrosine due to phenylalanine hydroxylase. Retardation can be controlled by diet if caught early enough. Phenylalanine free diet for life. Phenylketonuria
NAME OF GENETIC DISEASE: Lacks enzyme (glucose-6-phosphatase) in liver. Excess glycogen stored in liver, can't break down. Glycogen storage disease. Von Gierke's
NAME OF GENETIC DISEASE: CHS #5 aberration. Cats cry. Characteristic cry of newborn. Disappears usually by age 1-2. Cri du Chat
NAME OF GENETIC DISEASE: Lipodystrophy. Excess glucocerebrosides in brain, liver and spleen Gaucher's
NAME OF GENETIC DISEASE: Lipodystrophy. Excess galactocerebrosides in a white matter Krabbe's
NAME OF GENETIC DISEASE: Lipodystrophy. Increased sphingomyelin. A sphingomyelinase deficiency. Riemann Pick's
NAME OF GENETIC DISEASE: Lipodystrophy. Increased gangliosides in brain. Cherry spots on the macula. Most common in Ashkenazi Jews. Hexosaminidase deficiency Tay Sach's
NAME OF GENETIC DISEASE: Boys 3-7. Pseudohypertrophy of calves. Muscle replaced by fat. Recessive X linked. Waddling gait. Proximal muscles affected. Duchenne's Muscular Dystrophy
NAME OF GENETIC DISEASE: Autosomal dominant form of muscular dystrophy in adults. Affects face, scapula, upper arms Fascioscapulohumeral dystrophy
NAME OF GENETIC DISEASE: Autosomal class of muscular dystrophy. Affects hips and shoulders. Teenagers. Limb girdle dystrophy
NAME OF GENETIC DISEASE: Can't relax muscle Myotonic dystrophy
NAME OF GENETIC DISEASE: Most common form mild mental retardation caused by fragile site at "XQ27" Fragile X
NAME OF GENETIC DISEASE: 47XXY karyotype, tall male, low IQ, testicular atrophy, gynecomastia, sterile Kleinfelter's
NAME OF GENETIC DISEASE: 45X0 Karyotype, female, short, webbed neck, amenorrhea, lacks female 2ndary characteristics Turner's
NAME THE BONE PATHOLOGY: Forrestier's Disease. Male 50+. trouble swallowing due to calcification of ALL. Associated with diabetes mellitus. DISH
NAME THE BONE PATHOLOGY: Calcium or bone within muscle due to trauma. Most common in quads or biceps. "prussian's disease" Myosssitis Ossificans
NAME THE BONE PATHOLOGY: "Charcot joint" Most common location is foot/ankle. Caused by diabetes, corticosteroids, syringomyelia. Associated with 6 Ds. (Destruction, Debris of bone, Density increase, Dislocation, Disorganization, Distension) Neuropathic Joint
NAME THE BONE PATHOLOGY: "Marble bone disease" "Albers Schonbergs disease" Early stage = bone within a bone. Late stage = sandwich vertebra. Patient dies by 20-30 from hepatosplenomegaly and anemia Osteopetrosis
NAME THE BONE PATHOLOGY: Men over 50, increased hat size, cortical bone thickening, increased alkaline phosphate, pathological cell is the osteoclastic cell Pagets
NAME THE BONE PATHOLOGY: 4 stages of pagets 1. lytic phase 2. missed phase combined 3. plastic phase 4. malignant degeneration
NAME THE BONE PATHOLOGY: Progressive systemic sclerosis. Resorption of distal tufts. CREST signs: Calcinoshs Cutis, Raynaud's phenomenon, Esophageal problems, Sclerodactely, Telangiectasis = dilation of superficial blood vessels Scleroderma
NAME THE BONE TERMINOLOGY: Dead necrotic center Sequestrum
NAME THE BONE TERMINOLOGY: New bone formation Involcrum
NAME THE BONE TERMINOLOGY: Opening from bone to the skin. Seen with Brodie's access. Cloaca
NAME THE MINERAL/ENZYME TERMINOLOGY: Elevated in prostatic cancer which as erupted the prostate capsule Acid phosphatase
NAME THE MINERAL/ENZYME TERMINOLOGY: Elevated in liver and bone conditions Alkaline phosphatase
NAME THE MINERAL/ENZYME TERMINOLOGY: Build up of lipofuscin in organs Brown Atrophy
NAME THE MINERAL/ENZYME TERMINOLOGY: #1 mineral deficiency in the US Calcium
NAME THE MINERAL/ENZYME TERMINOLOGY: #1 mineral deficiency in the world Iron
NAME THE ARTHRITIS: "Marie Stumper's disease" Seronegative arthritis. HLA B27+. Autoimmune. Starts age 15-35 males. Can cause AAA & iritis. Ankylosing Spondylitis
NAME THE ARTHRITIS: Coal miners lung with RA nodules Caplan's syndrome
NAME THE ARTHRITIS: Chronic rheumatoid arthritis with splenomegaly Felty's Syndrome
NAME THE ARTHRITIS: Usually affects the knee. Green-yellow pus. Gonococcal
NAME THE ARTHRITIS: Uric acid. Most common cause is high diet in purine. Overhanging edge sign. "Juxtaarticular erosions" Gouty arthritis (metabolic arthritis)
NAME THE ARTHRITIS: Uric acid specifically in big toe Podagra
NAME THE ARTHRITIS: Usually affects the knee. Causes enlarged intercondylar notch. Hemophilia
NAME THE ARTHRITIS: Unilateral distribution in weight bearing joints. Osteophytes. Location: Hip then knee Osteoarthritis
NAME THE ARTHRITIS: Osteoarthritis in DIP Heberden's Nodes
NAME THE ARTHRITIS: Osteoarthritis in PIP Bouchard's
NAME THE ARTHRITIS: Seronegative. HLA B27+. Periarticular erosions. Mouse ears. Pencil in cup deformities. Sausage digits. Silver scales. Pitted nails. Psoriatic Arthritis (PA)
NAME THE ARTHRITIS: Seronegative. HLA B27+. Chlamydia. White Pus. Conjunctivitis, Urethritis, Arthritis (Can't see, can't pee, can't dance with me). Reiter's aka reactive arthritis
NAME THE ARTHRITIS: Inflammatory condition. Bilateral symmetrical. Ulnar deviations. Pannus formation. Rat bite or marginal erosions. Swan neck deformity. Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA)
NAME THE ARTHRITIS: Arthritis in MCP Haygarth's nodules
NAME THE ARTHRITIS: PEAR P=Psoriatic E=Enteropathic arthropothy A=Ankylosing spondylitis R=Reactive syndrome Seronegative arthritis
NAME THE ARTHRITIS: RSSS R=Rheumatoid arthritis S=Sjoren's S=Scleraderma S=Systemic Lupus Erythmatosis Seropositive arthritis
NAME THE ARTHRITIS: Dry eyes (xerophthalmia), Dry mouth (xerostomia) Seropositive for RA Sjorens
NAME THE ARTHRITIS: Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis Still's disease
NAME THE ARTHRITIS: Photosensitivity, Libman Sach's endocarditis. Autoimmune disease. Antibodies against DNA. Butterfly rash aka malar rash. Systemic Lupus Erythematosis
NAME THE BONE DISEASE: Death of bone due to lack of blood. Most common cause is trauma but can also be caused by corticosteroids. Osteonecrosis (Avascular necrosis)
NAME OF AVASCULAR NECROSIS: Lunate Keinboch's disease
NAME OF AVASCULAR NECROSIS: Tarsal navicular Kohler's disease
NAME OF AVASCULAR NECROSIS: Head of femur of child Legge Calve Perthes
NAME OF AVASCULAR NECROSIS: Scaphoid Preisser's disease
NAME OF AVASCULAR NECROSIS: Multiple vertebral endplates. Disc space narrowing Scheuermann's disease
NAME OF FRACTURE: Most common fracture of the wrist. Fracture of distal radius with posterior displacement. "Dinner fork deformity" Colles fracture
NAME OF FRACTURE: Tibial Apophysitis. Avulsion of tibial tuberosity of knee in young athletic children Osgood Schlatter's
NAME OF FRACTURE: Reverse Colles. Fracture of distal radius with anterior displacement. Garden spade deformity Smith's Fracture