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Lecture 2.1

Element 2- Biochemistry

Explain the causes of ketoacidosis in a type 1 diabetes mellitus patient Ketone bodies (3 small water soluble ketones) are produced when the liver thinks it needs to provide a respiratory substrate. They cause a build up of protons in the blood, causing pH to drop. The blood buffer equilibria shifts left, releasing CO2.
What are ketones? Ketones are chemicals that the body creates when it breaks down fat to use for energy. The body does this when it doesn't have enough insulin to use glucose, the body's normal source of energy. When ketones build up in the blood, they make it more acidic.
Explain the symptoms of ketoacidosis in a type 1 diabetes mellitus patient Patient is breathing very deeply and frequently and blood serum bicarbonate will be low (due to acidic blood levels meaning CO2 is released into blood).
What isomerism do amino acids display and which isomer is involved in biology? Optical isomerism. L-isomer
What is optical isomerism? Optical isomers are molecules that differ three-dimensionally by the placement of substituents around one or more atoms in a molecule.
Which direction does growth of the polypeptide occur during translation From the N-terminus to the C- terminus
Is the peptide bond rigid and why? Yes. Because the lone pair on the nitrogen join the C-N bond forming a C=N+ double bond
How do proteins fold if the peptide bond is rigid? The chiral carbon's single bonds with the adjacent carbon and nitrogen are single bonds and so are free to rotate.
What determines a proteins three-dimensional conformation? The proteins primary structure
What is Osmolality? Concentration of a solution. The osmolality of a fluid is proportionate to the total concentration of all the dissolved molecules the fluid (e.g. proteins, ions, metabolites etc.)
What is the equation of the ionisation of water in relation to pH? pH = -Log[H+]
What is the equation for the ion product of water? Kw=[H+][OH-]
What is the Henderson Hasselbach equation? pH = pKa + log ([A-]/[HA])
What is the optimum blood pH? pH 7.4
What happens if blood pH falls to 7 ACIDOSIS=fatal. Diarrhoea+Diabetes
What happens if blood pH rises to 8 ALKALOSIS=fatal. Vomiting+Hyperventilation
What are the amino acid groups? Non-polar (hydrophobic), Polar (Hydrophilic), Acidic (Neg-charged), Basic (pos-charged)
Created by: macdonkr