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Histology nerve


Anatomically divides into two parts, CNS, PNS Nerve
comprises the brain, spinal cord Central Nervous system
consists of all other nervous tissue Peripheral nervous system
Divides into two groups somatic and autonomic Nerve function
Voluntary, conscious control Somatic
Involuntary Autonomic
Consists of cells and cell process histologically
Neuronal cell bodies and processes, glial cells and process, myelin sheath Histological demonstration of nerves
consists of cell body (perikaryon) that contains the nucleus and one or more process(axon and dendrites) Neurons
vary in shape 4-135 microns Neurons
contains predominently euchromatin and a very prominent nucleolus nucleus
known as tigroid substance or chromidal substance Nissl substance
basophilic material in the cytoplasm of the neuron Nissl substance
Large aggregates of rough endoplasmic reticulum w/ the RNA content providing the basis for demonstration by staining Nissl substance
Disappears when a neuron is injured, is useful in assessing neuronal damage Nissl substance
two types, axons and dedrites Nerve cell processes
usually short, highly branched and function as the major sites of information input for the neuron Dendrites - nerve cell processes
referred to as nerve fibers, and function by carrying nerve impulses over long distances Axons
Each neuron has a single axon that originates from a cone shaped eleveation of cell body and that terminates on the dendrites or cell body of other neurons (synapse) Nerve cell processes
provide supporting network for cns Neuroglia
produce the myelin sheath covering many axons Neuroglia
Regulates the neuronal micro enviroment Neuroglia
Oligodendroglia, astroglia, microgia, enpendymal cells Glial cells
small cells that produce and maintain the myelin sheath surronding many axons oligodendroglia
found in the gray matter (primarily nerve cell bodies) and white matter (primarily nerve fibers) oligondendroglia
rarely are special stains reqested to demonstrate these cells oligodendroglia
stellate cells of two types, Protoplasmic and Fibrous Astrocytes
protoplasmic - occur in gray matter Astrocytes
fibrous - occur in white matter Astrocytes
Functions include exchange of fluids, gasses and metabolites among nerve tissue, blood and cerebrospinal fluid, scar formation when injury or trauma occurs to the CNS and provides support for nerve fiber tracts Astrocytes
Special stains have been replaced by immunohistochemistry Astrocytes
Fixed phagocytic cells found throughout the brain and spinal cord microglia
special stains rarely requested except for research microglia
true epithelial cells that line the ventricals and spinal cords ependymal cells
form a selective barrier between the cerebrospinal fluid and the nerve tissue ependymal cells
is a complex white fatty nonliving material containing protein, cholestrol, phospholipids and cerebrosides Myelin
largely lost during processing, except neurokeratin Myelin
formed by oliodendroglia in the CNS and Schwann cells in the PNS myelin Sheath
in response to injury or disease that break down myelin a simple lipd that becomes increasing sudanophilic is formed. luxol fast blue and iron hematoxylin are used to demonstrated the myelin sheath Myelin
Purpose - identification of nuerons in tissue sections or the demonstration of the loss of Nissl Substance (chromatolysis) Cresyl Echt Violet (Vacca)
Principal - Staining is restricted to DNA and RNA containing structures Cresyl Echt Violet (VAcca)
Section 6-8 microns Cresyl Echt violet (vacca)
Control - spinal cord Cresyl Echt Violet (Vacca)
microscopically, sections may appear unstained leading you to believe that the stain is not working cresyl Echt Violet (Vacca)
Nissl subustance and Nuclei - blue/purple Cresyl Echt Violet (Vacca)
Purpose - demonstrate nerve fibers, the presence of neurofibillary tangles and senile plaques in alzheimers disease. can also be used to demonstrate granules in some carcinoid tumor cells bielchowsky
principles- the tissue is impregnated w/ ammonical silver solution. the silver deposited on the neurofibrils and axons is then reduced to metallic silver by the formaldehyde in the developer. sodium thiosulfate removes any unreduced silver bielchowsky
sections 8 microns bielchowsky
control - tissue from CNS, if possible tissue containing plaques and tangles bielchowsky
axons brown to black bielchowsky
cytoplasmic neurofibrils - brown/black bielchowsky
neurofibilary tangles and senile plaques drak brown to black bielchowsky
neuromelanin - black bielchowsky
lipofucsin - brown to black bielchowsky
purpose - demonstrate glial fibers Mallory PTAH
principle - the phosphotungstic acid in the staining solution is far greater than the hematein and it is believed that tungsten binds all available hematain to give a blue colored lake. Mallory PTAH
Metal hematein lake stains selected tissue components (glial fibers), while the phosphtungstic acid is thought to stain the red-brown components (neuron) Mallory PTAH
section 6-8 microns Mallory PTAH
control; cerebral cortes not spinal cord Mallory PTAH
Glial fibers - blues Mallory PTAH
Nuclei - blue Mallory PTAH
Neurons - salmon Mallory PTAH
Myelin - Blue Mallory PTAH
purpose - demonstrate myelin in tissue sections, when an axon degenerates the myelin covering breaksdown into simpler lipids that w/b removed eventually Luxol fast blue
principal - staining is due to lipoproteins and teh mechnisms is one of an acid-base reaction w/ salt formation. the base of the lipoprotein replaces the base of the dye Luxol fast blue
sections 10-15 microns luxol fast blue
control - spinal cord or medulla luxol fast blue
myelin - blue luxol fast blue
background - colorless luxol fast blue
gray matter and demylelinated areas appear colorless, a sharp contrast to the stained myelinated white matter. staining can be microscopically seen luxol fast blue
purpose - demonstration of glial fibers and areas of gliosis Holzer method
principle - glial fibers stained w/ crystal violet are resistant to decolorizing w/ alkaline aniline chloroform mixture Holzer method
sections 6-8 micron Holzer method
control - cerbral cortex not spinal cord Holzer Method
glial fibers - blue Holzer Method
Background - very pale blue to colorless Holzer method
Purpes - demonstrate astrocytes Cajal stain
Prinicple - astrocytes are selectively stained w/ Cajal gold sublimate method on frozen sections Cajal stain
fix - formalin ammonium bromide for no less than 2days but no more than 25 days cajal stain
section - frozen section cut at 20-30microns, tissue is free floated not placed on slides Cajal stain
Control - cerebral cortex not spinal cord Cajal Stain
Has been replaced by immunohistochemistry Cajal Stain
AStrocytes w/ perivascular feet - black Cajal stain
Created by: nperez



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