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8thGrHistory-SemRev

8th Grade US History - 1st Semester Review

QuestionAnswer
What year was the first permanent English settlement founded? 1607
When was the Declaration of Independence signed? July 4, 1776
What document was signed in 1215 and limited the power of the king? Magna Carta
What document was written in 1689 that gave power to Parliament and listed the rights of English citizens? English Bill of Rights
What was the first representative assembly in North America? Virginia House of Burgesses
What was the first example of self-government in North America? Mayflower Compact
What was the first written Constitution in North America? Fundamental Order of Connecticut
What was the name of the rejected plan proposed by Benjamin Franklin that would unite the colonies under one Government? Albany Plan of Union
What did the Proclamation of 1763 say? colonists could not settle west of the Appalachian mountains
Who wrote the Declaration of Independence? Thomas Jefferson
What is the name of the document that ended the American Revolution and made the Mississippi River the western boundary of the United States? Treaty of Paris 1783
What is the name of the first written Constitution in the U.S. that had many weaknesses? Articles of Confederation
What is the name of the document written in 1787 that established the U.S. government and divided it into three branches? U.S. Constitution
What are the first ten amendments to the Constitution called? Bill of Rights
What was the name of the series of essays written by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison? Federalist Papers
Why were the essays (by Hamilton, Jay & Madison) written? to persuade colonists to ratify the constitution
What did the Northwest Ordinance do? made a system for territories to apply for statehood
The period of religious enthusiasm in the American colonies is referred to as what? Great Awakening
What was the event where 5 American citizens were shot and killed by British soldiers in March, 1770? It was also used as propaganda. Shay's Rebellion
This happened when colonists dressed as Native Americans and dumped tea into Boston Harbor? Boston Tea Party
What act prompted the colonists to dump tea into Boston Harbor? Intolerable Acts
What was the pamphlet written to convince colonists that it was time to become independent from Britain? Common Sense
Who wrote the pamphlet written to convince colonists that it was time to become independent from Britain? Thomas Paine
What body governed the colonies after independence had been declared? Articles of Confederation
This occurred when farmers were arrested for not paying their debt? It also highlighted the weaknesses of the AOC. Shay's Rebellion
The purpose of this event was to make changes to the AOC. Constitutional Convention
Where was the event held which was to make changes to the AOC? Philadelphia
2nd Continental Congress sent this to King George III as a last attempt at peace. King George angrily rejected the offer. Olive Branch Petition
Which act led to the 3rd Amendment in the Bill of Rights? Quartering Act
What was the name of the agreement that created two houses of Congress? One would be based on population and the other would have equal representation. Great Compromise
What agreement was made during the Constitutional Convention determining the representation of slaves? 3/5 Compromise
What did the agreement made during the Constitutional Convention determining the representation of slaves say? slaves counted as 3/5 a person when determining representation
What was the war that was fought between the French and British over control of North America? French and Indian War
Where were the first shots of the American Revolution fired? Lexington and Concord
What was the first official battle of the American Revolution? Battle of Bunker Hill
What battle is considered the turning point of the Revolution? Saratoga
What was the final battle of the American Revolution? Yorktown
Who was the man who saved Jamestown by implementing the "work or starve" rule? John Smith
Who is the man who made Jamestown prosperous by growing tobacco and married Pocahontas which helped relations with the Native Americans? John Rolfe
Who founded Pennsylvania? William Penn
Why was Pennsylvania founded? for religious freedom by the Quakers
Who believed in the separation of church and state and founded a colony after being kicked out of Massachusetts? Roger Williams
What colony did he (who believed in separation of church & state and founded this colony after being kicked out of Massachusetts) establish? Rhode Island
Who is the woman that was kicked out of Massachusetts for saying God spoke directly to her? Anne Hutchison
Who founded Georgia? James Oglethorpe
Why was Georgia founded? debtors
Who founded Maryland? Lord Baltimore
Why was Maryland founded?
Who started the Sons of Liberty and Committees of Correspondence? Samuel Adams
Who was the British monarch during the American Revolution? King George III
Who wrote Common Sense and The Crisis? Thomas Paine
Who was the commander of the Continental Army and the first president of the U.S.? George Washington
Who was the author of the Declaration of Independence? Thomas Jefferson
What is the name of the French man who believed in the Patriot cause and became a close friend to George Washington? Marquis de Lafayette
Who is the Prussian who helped train the Patriots at Valley Forge? Frederich von Steuben
Who was the British general that surrendered at Yorktown? Lord Charles Cornwallis
This man was an American naval hero and is famous for his words, "I have not yet begun to fight." John Paul Jones
Patriot from Virginia who famously said, "Give me liberty or give me death!" Patrick Henry
Who proposed the Albany Plan and was also an inventor and diplomat? Benjamin Franklin
Who is known as the Father of the Constitution? James Madison
What type of government has people elect representatives to make laws on their behalf? representative
What is the document that outlines our government? U.S. Constitution
People in government positions being subject to the same laws as other citizens is referred to as what? limited government
What is the term used for the idea that political power rests with the people? popular sovereignty
What are the rights that all citizens possess called? individual rights
The term used to refer to people electing representatives to make laws for them. republicanism
This refers to the sharing of power between the state and national government. federalism
What policy do we have in effect where each branch of government can check the other two to ensure that no branch becomes too powerful? checks and balances
The principle of the Constitution that states that each branch of government has a specific function. separation of powers
What are the 3 branches and their functions? legislative - make laws executive - interpret laws judicial - execute the laws
The Supreme Court has the power to rule an act of Congress unconstitutional. What is this called? judicial review
What was the name of the plan that called for equal representation for all states in Congress? New Jersey Plan
What was the name of the plan that called for representation in Congress to be based on population? Virginia Plan
What came about as a combination of these two plans? Great Compromise
What is the introduction to the Constitution called? Preamble
What did the 13th Amendment do? abolished slavery
What did the 14th Amendment do? former slaves granted citizenship
What did the 15th Amendment do? suffrage for black men
What were the people known as who supported ratification of the Constitution? federalists
What were the people known as that were against ratification? anti-federalists
What did they want before they would ratify the Constitution? Bill of Rights
A business funded by a group of people who make an investment and share in profits and losses. joint stock company
The belief that a colony exists to benefit the mother Country financially. mercantilism
Businesses compete for consumers who are free to decide where to purchase goods and the government has little control. free enterprise
Trade route that existed between the 13 colonies, Africa, and the West Indies for the trade of rum, sugar and slaves. Triangular Trade
A person who receives passage to North America in exchange for work. indentured servants
Large farm that grew cash crops and was farmed by slaves. plantation
crops grown to sell cash crop
Tax placed on goods coming into a country. tariff
A tariff placed on foreign goods to protect domestic industry. protective tariff
People who wanted to "purify" the Church of England. Puritans
People who wanted to separate from the Church of England. Seperarists
A change to the Constitution. amendments
To officially accept or approve by vote. ratify
Rights that all people have that cannot be taken away. unalienable rights
What does the term tyranny mean? over powerful
List 3 principles of the Constitution that protect us from tyranny. separation of powers, checks and balances, federalism
13 colonies and be able to label on map NH, MA, RI, CT, NY, PA, DL, NJ, MD, VA, NC, SC, GA
Know the 3 colonial regions and what colonies made up each one. New England, Middle Colony, Southern Colony
What colony was Jamestown located in? Virginia
What was the slogan that became the cry of the colonists after the various acts were passed? "no taxation without representation"
What group did Samuel Adams form to protest these acts? Sons of Liberty
Loyalist colonist who sided with Britain during American Revolution
Patriot American colonist who fought for independence from Britain during the Revolutionary War
Where did you find the phrase "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness?" Declaration of Independence
British advantages & disadvantages during the American Revolution + more money & resources + powerful military: British navy was most powerful in world + soldiers = trained professionals - British had to deal with hostile citizens - Had to ship supplies across Atlantic Ocean - Not fighting for cause they cared for
American advantages & disadvantages during the American Revolution + support from citizens + fighting for cause they believed in + Washington was very good commander - no navy - poorly trained soldiers (local militia) - they never fought together
Why is the Battle of Saratoga considered the turning point of the Revolution? It was the greatest win so far in the war. It boosted morale and increased foreign support for patriots.
Primary source Comes from someone who actually experienced the situation.
Secondary source Comes from someone who had not actually experienced the situation but just read or heard about it.