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Division and Civ War

JAHKMLHS C10 and C11 Division and Civil War

Millard Fillmore This vice-president who became President when the “hero of Buena Vista” died signed into law the five acts which Henry Clay proposed in order to keep the peace between North and South when California applied for statehood.
Compromise of 1850 This series of resolutions which Henry Clay proposed in order to keep the peace between North and South when California applied for statehood actually caused more anger.
Fugitive Slave Act This law which made assisting runaway slaves a federal crime refocused the nation on slavery and probably made more people abolitionists who before had been relatively ambivalent toward slavery.
popular sovereignty This philosophy which was championed by a man nicknamed “The Little Giant” suggested that instead of Congress passing an outright ban on slavery in territories the people who would inhabit the territory should make the final determination.
Free Soil Party Formed in 1848 this political party’s main plank was to keep slavery out of the Western territories.
Republican Party This political party, born either in Ripon, Wisconsin, or in Jackson, Michigan, arose after the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
Stephen Douglas This politician proposed that the slavery question in new territories should be settled by popular sovereignty in order to get Southerners on his side.
nativist This type of person who believes that immigrants pose a threat to his culture, language, job, pay-scale, or moral values is opposed to immigrants.
Ostend Manifesto This document which strongly suggested that the United States should take Cuba by force if Spain refused to sell was applauded by Southerners but was vigorously denounced by the free-soil press as a plot to extend slavery.
Matthew Perry In 1853, naval officer was sent by President Pierce to force Japan to open trade with U.S.
The Impending Crisis of the South This book written by a Southerner attempted to show through various statistics that slavery was actually harming the Southern economy.
David Wilmot On August 8, 1846, this new Representative from Pennsylvania proposed an amendment to an appropriations bill for the Mexican War which in effect would have banned any slavery in the land acquired from Mexico after the war.
secede This term suggests a breaking away from the Union.
Kansas-Nebraska Act This law, passed in 1854, caused North and South to compete to settle the territory and led to guerrilla warfare between pro- and antislavery settlers.
Personal liberty laws These laws were actually a series of acts passed by many Northern states which prohibited state officials from assisting anyone pursuing runaway slaves.
Hinton Rowan Helper Although from North Carolina, this man wrote a book that used a plenty of “boring” statistics to illustrate the negative effects of slavery on Southern white workers and farmers.
William Lloyd Garrison On January 1st, 1831, This abolitionist published the first edition of The Liberator triggering a 30-year war of words and in a sense firing one of the first shots of the Civil War.
Elijah Lovejoy This man’s printing presses were stolen three times by proslavery groups in Alton, Illinois. Finally, in order to silence his abolition newspaper, the proslavery men killed me.
Harriet Beecher Stowe Although this author had never actually seen slavery in action, she wrote a story about the evils of slavery that became a best seller in the 1850’s.
Harriet Tubman This woman was known as the “Black Moses” because she led many of her people out of slavery.
Lawrence This city in Kansas was attacked by a pro-slavery posse which destroyed two antislavery newspaper offices and burned the Free State Hotel.
Charles Sumner This Senator was “caned” while finishing up some work at his desk in a nearly empty Senate chamber.
Lecompton Constitution This official document written by pro-slavery elements in the territory would have protected all property in slaves and would have banned any free blacks from the state.
John Brown This man attempted to lead a slave uprising but was wounded and captured at Harper’s Ferry after an abortive attempt to arouse the slaves.
Preston Brooks On May 22, 1856, this Representative “caned” a Senator because of a speech in which the Senator had criticized President Franklin Pierce and Southerners who sympathized with the pro-slavery violence in Kansas and this man’s uncle.
guerrilla war This type of fighting includes sabotage, ambush, hit-and-run tactics, and other kinds of surprise attacks.
36º30' According to the Missouri Compromise (1820), this latitude which was the northern most boundary of slavery in the Louisiana territory was nullified by the Kansas-Nebraska Act.
Abraham Lincoln This “rail splitter,” who seemingly came out of nowhere to win the 1860 Republican Party Presidential nomination, ran a campaign in the North which was marked by “Wide-Awake” clubs that marched in parades carrying torches mounted on fence rails.
Beecher’s Bibles This nickname was given to rifles with which antislavery emigrants to Kansas were equipped.
Pottawatomie Massacre This act of revenge resulted in five pro-slavery men being dragged from their cabins and literally hacked to death.
Roger B. Taney This chief justice of the Supreme Court, a Southerner who had freed his slaves, wrote the majority opinion in which he cited the Fifth Amendment to the Constitution as a reason why banning slavery north of 36º 30’ was unconstitutional.
John C. Fremont This Presidential candidate for the Republican Party in 1856 became the first presidential candidate for the new Republican Party.
platform This series of statements (planks), that specify the beliefs of a political party, is usually hammered together at a nominating convention before the party’s presidential candidate is selected.
Scott v. Sandford This case in the Supreme Court ruling that a black man was not a citizen and therefore could not sue in federal court.
Harper’s Ferry This sleepy little town nestled between two high hills became the site of an attempt was made to begin a slave uprising. The federal arsenal was taken over by a gang of armed men who became trapped in the engine house.
John C Breckinridge This man was nominated by the Southern Democrats in 1860 to be their Presidential candidate when the Democratic party split over the issue of protecting the institution of slavery, as well as the spread of slavery into the territories.
Dred Scott This slave whose master had taken him into the free state of Illinois for a period of time believed that he should be a free man since Illinois had abolished slavery. The case went all the way to the Supreme Court where his claim was denied.
William Seward This leading nominee for President for the Republican party in the 1860 election became a liability because he voted against any compromise on slavery and fiercely attacked the institution of slavery.
Freeport Doctrine Stephen Douglas’ belief that slavery could legally be barred from the territories if the territorial legislatures simply refused to enact the type of police regulations necessary to make slavery work.
John Bell In the 1860 election this man was the candidate of the “Know-Nothings” and the moderate Southern Democrats.
Section 4 Lincoln, Secession, and War
James Buchanan This President saw seven of the southern states secede.
Peace Convention At this meeting held at the Willard Hotel delegates proposed that slavery in the territories, be addressed simply by extending the Missouri Compromise line to the Pacific coast with no provision for newly acquired territory.
Crittenden Compromise This proposal by a Senator from Kentucky called for a series of irrevocable amendments to the Constitution to deal with slavery questions.
Jefferson Davis Although this man would have preferred to stay at my plantation in Mississippi or to be chosen to lead the armies of the South, he was elected to be the President of the Southern states.
Confederate States of America This name was chosen by the delegates of the seven seceding states as the name of the new nation created by the secession.
Peace Convention This meeting, called by Virginia on January 19, 1861, by the non-seceding states was an attempt to avert war by finding a compromise that would permit the restoration of the Union.
Fort Sumter This military installation was fired on by Confederate forces and in effect became the spark that set off the Civil War.
Pea Ridge A Union victory in this battle put Missouri into Union hands for the next two years even though the battle took place in Arkansas.
contraband This term refers to captured war supplies.
Stand Watie This Cherokee became a general in the Southern army and an excellent guerrilla leader in the west. He was the last Confederate general to surrender.
Ambrose Burnside This reluctant Union general ordered his men to attack the Confederates behind a stonewall in front of the sunken road at the base of Marye’s Heights at Fredericksburg.
Antietam This was the first major battle fought on Union soil; the South needed a decisive victory to possible gain help from Britain.
John Pope This general of the Army of the Potomac boasted that his troops in the west had always seen the backs of the enemy; he was crushed by Lee at the second Battle of Bull Run.
William Tecumseh Sherman This man who was accused of insanity by the press was the stalwart commander at Pittsburg Landing. Though wounded in the battle he refused to leave the field. He became perhaps Grant’s most trusted general.
Peninsula Campaign This series of battles in early 1862 was the result of a numerically superior Northern army marching to take Richmond led by McClellan.
Shenandoah Valley Early in the war this area of Virginia was the scene of some of Jackson’s greatest triumphs; later in the war Sheridan destroyed much of the crops that could be used to feed the Confederate army.
Fredericksburg This battle included an area which became known as the “great slaughter pen” because the Union suffered nearly 12,000 casualties.
Chickamauga In this battle Braxton Bragg led his troops to a pyrrhic victory over William Rosecrans; however, the main objective of recovering Chattanooga could not be achieved. Union General George Henry Thomas earned his nickname “Rock...”
Alabama This ship, commanded by Raphael Semmes, spent about two years destroying or capturing Union cargo ships; it was destroyed by the USS Kearsage.
Joseph Hooker This Union General developed a strong strategic and daring plan that might have trapped the Army of Virginia at Chancellorsville.
Chancellorsville This battle might have seen the complete destruction of the Army of the Potomac; however, the South lost one of its great generals “Stonewall” Jackson when he was wounded by his own men.
JEB Stuart He was the flamboyant leader of Confederate cavalry; he twice led his cavalry around the Union forces.
Robert Gould Shaw He commanded the 54th Massachusetts, the first all black regiment in the Union Army.
Fort Pillow This “massacre” in which Confederates killed 200 black soldiers became a rallying cry for the Union.
Robert Anderson He surrendered Fort Sumter to the Confederates.
border states This term referred to Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland, and Delaware.
martial law Under this type of situation military commanders are placed in control of civilian areas and citizens’ rights and freedoms are suspended.
Anaconda Plan This strategy, Winfield Scott’s design for conquering the south, would blockade Southern ports and capture the Mississippi; McClellan referred to the plan as the “boa constrictor plan.”
cotton diplomacy This was the foreign policy used by the Confederates to attempt to receive foreign aid and recognitions of southern independence.
embargo This total restriction of exporting cotton was proposed by Southern newspapers as a way of forcing France and England to recognize southern independence.
April 12, 1861 On this date the Confederates opened fire on Fort Sumter.
P. G. T. Beauregard He was the Confederate general who order the firing on Fort Sumter. He also commanded at Bull Run and at Shiloh.
Star of the West This ship, sent by President Buchanan to bring supplies and more troops to Fort Sumter, was fired on by the cannon at Fort Moultrie.
Jefferson Davis He was the president of the Confederacy during the Civil War.
April 14, 1861 On this date the Fort Sumter was formally surrendered to the Confederates..
James B. Eads This man had the government contract to build the ironclads (turtles) for the Mississippi.
John Brown He was the abolitionist who led an attack on a federal arsenal in Harper’s Ferry in 1859.
Thomas Jackson This man received his nickname from General Barnard Bee at the first Battle of Bull Run during his stout defense of Henry Hill.
First Bull Run This first large scale battle of the Civil War was treated more like a “tail-gating” party by the North.
casualties This term refers to the killed, wounded, and missing in action during a single battle or for an entire war.
George McClellan He was always hesitant to attack, was always asking for more men, and always believed that he was outnumbered especially in the Peninsula Campaign.
July 21, 1861 This date was the day of the first major battle of the Civil War.
Wilmer Mclean The Civil War began in this man’s kitchen and ended in his parlor.
Monitor This “cheesebox” on a raft clashed with a Confederate ironclad at Hampton Roads on March 9, 1862.
Shiloh In this two day battle Grant was ultimately victorious even though he had been caught unaware; Grant had been gathering his army together to attack Corinth.
Ulysses S. Grant He became one of the best generals of the Union armies; he won key victories in the western theater during the early part of the Civil War.
Samuel M. Pook This man designed ironclads (“turtles”) to operate on the Mississippi and its tributaries.
Trent affair This political situation occurred when two Southern representatives to England were forcibly removed from a British ship; Britain even sent soldiers to Canada.
Ben Butler He was the military commander in New Orleans who gave the order that any woman who showed disrespect to a Union soldier should be treated as a prostitute; Lincoln removed him from command in 1862.
Fort Donelson This victory by Grant marked the first of three Confederate armies captured and gave Grant his nickname from the reply to Buckner about the terms of surrender: “No terms except unconditional and immediate surrender can be accepted.”
David Farragut This man commanded the Union blockade of the western Gulf of Mexico captured the port of New Orleans by slipping past the two forts guarding the southern approach to the city at night.
Virginia This was a Confederate ironclad built by refitting a Union ship previously known as the Merrimack.
Albert Sidney Johnston This Confederate general bled to death at Shiloh because he had sent his doctor to help out some wounded Union soldiers and his men didn’t know enough to apply a tourniquet.
George McClellan This man became general of the Army of the Potomac after the debacle of the first battle of Bull Run.
Glorieta Pass This battle, fought in New Mexico territory, has been dubbed the “Gettysburg of the West.” The Confederates were stopped when Major John Chivington destroyed their supply train.
Star of the West This ship, sent by President Buchanan to bring supplies and more troops to Fort Sumter, was fired on by the cannon at Fort Moultrie.
Dangerfield Newby He was the first of the raiders killed at Harper’s Ferry in 1859.
Richard Parker This judge sentences John Brown to death.
Pottawatomie Creek At this place five proslavery men, including James Doyle, were killed in retaliation for Lawrence and for the Sumner caning.
Created by: jim.haferman