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World History

Exam Study Guide

Egyptian writing system Hieroglyphic symbols that represented words
Function of the pyramids burial tombs
Nile river (size and direction) 4,100 miles long and flows north
Purpose of mummification eternal afterlife after a preserved body
What is a fertile crescent? Shaped piece of a farm land in Iraq that attracted people to permanently settle
Who was Hammurabi? What was Hammurabi's code? Babylonian king 1st written code of law
What was Sumer? 1st known civilization
Who were the Aryans? Indo-Europeans that migrated to india
How did Hinduism form? Collection of beliefs from 1500 B.C.E to present
What are the Vedas? Aryan religious text
What is karma? collection of a souls good and bad deeds
How did Buddhism form? Founder of India (Siddartha) rejected royal life for a life of simplicity
What is reincarnation? belief that a soul is reborn into a new body
What is Hellenistic culture? Blend of Greek, Egyptian, Persian, & Indian culture
Explain the government structure of ancient Greece: What is a city state? Not united politically; each city-state governed itself
Describe Athens Founded basis of western philosophy, Democratic
Describe Sparta Oligarchy, society based on military & aggressive culture
What is a republic? People elect democratic representatives
What were Patricians? landowning wealthy of Roman Republic
What were Plebians? Non-landowners of Roman Republic
Who made up the First Triumvirate? Julius Caesar, Crassus, Pompey
Who was the first Roman Emperor? Augustus Caesar
Why did the Roman Empire fall? Progressive economic, political, & military decline from 200 – 500 C.E.
What is Byzantium? Same city: Byzantium / Constantinople / Istanbul. Capital of Byzantine Empire & Eastern Roman Empire
Who was Justinian? What was the Justinian Code? Greatest Byzantium emperor; created Justinian Code (Code of Laws)
Why did the Roman Empire split in 330 C.E.? (1). Byzantium was newer & wealthier (2). Roman Empire was inefficient with one capital
What was the Great Schism? Split of Christian Church into Roman Catholic & Easter Orthodox denominatinos
Why did the Christian Church split? Differences in leaders, practice, & law
Following the split, what were the new Christian denominations? Roman Catholic & Eastern Orthodox
What caused the fall of the Byzantium Empire? Slavic & Muslim invasion
Explain the settlement of Russia? Slavic farmers & traders / Rus Vikings
What impact did the Mongols have on Russia? Controlled Russia for 300 years; high taxes prevented economic success
What is a Czar? Russian King
Who was Ivan III? 1st Czar of Russia; defeated Mongols
Who was Muhammad? Founder of Islam
What is the importance of Mecca? Medina? Birthplace of Muhammed / Islam; Location after Muhammed’s exile from Mecca
What is the Shari’a? Islamic law governing daily life
What is the Ka’ba? Mecca Shrine / location of Muhhamed’s final revelations / Well of Zam Zam / Black Stone
What is the Hijrah? Celebration of Muhammed’s successful move to Medina
What is a caliph? Worldwide leader of Muslim community (Umma)
Who were the Umayyads? 1st Caliphate; led to 1st Islamic denominations; based in Syria
Explain the movement of the Turks Originated in Central Asia; conquered by Abbasids; then overthrew Abbasid control before moving to & taking over the Byzantines
What is a Sultan? What is a Vizier? Political leader of Ottoman Empire / Special Assistant or Prime Minister of Persia for the Sultan
What were the Dark Ages? 500 – 1000 C.E.; Europe fell apart politically & economically after Rome fell
Who were the Franks? 1st Germanic tribe to Christianize (France & C. Germany)
Who were the Vikings? Scandinavians that invaded into Britain & Continental Europe in search of money & food (led to Feudalism)
Know Clovis: 1st Frankish king to convert to Christianity; forced onto his people
What were the Crusades? European holy wars to take the Holy Land back from Muslim control
What was the Magna Carta? Document that guaranteed: (1). No taxation without representation (2). Equal protection under the law (3). Jury trial
What was the Hundred Years War? Ended Middle Ages; England vs. France; France won
What was the impact of the development of the Longbow? Ended Chivalry; Knights no longer were effective on battlefield
Created by: Meritajones2015