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Mr. Stickler's U.S. HIST "Industrialization" Unit Test B flashcards 2018

List three (3) new inventions made that were mentioned in this unit. 1. Telephone 2. Railroad locomotives 3. Lightbulb.
Who or what are "entrepreneurs"? "People who risk their capital to organize and run businesses".
What was the Morrill Tariff? A set of tax increases imposed after the Civil War. Taxes tripled by 1865.
What was the Pacific Railway Act of 1862 and when was it signed? The Act provided for the construction of a transcontinental railroad by two corporations. (Pgs. 188 & 189)
What is a "corporation"? An organization owned by many people but treated by law as though it were a person.
What are "pools"? This is another name for agreements between companies to keep costs low.
What is a "vertically integrated" company? They own all of the different businesses on which it depends for its operation. (Instead of paying other companies for them.)
What is a "monopoly"? When a single company achieves control of an entire market.
What is "horizontal integration" where companies are concerned? "Combining firms in the same business into one large corporation."
What is a "holding company"? "Holding companies that do not produce anything itself. Instead, it owns the stock of companies that do produce goods."
What is "deflation"? "A rise in the value of money."
What were the 2 basic types of industrial workers in the U.S. during the 1800's? Craft workers & common laborers.
What is/ was a "blacklist"? "A list of 'troublemakers' published by an industry so that no one would hire them.
What does the term "arbitration" refer to? "A process in which a 3rd party helps workers and employers reach an agreement."
What are two ways that employers tried to stop their employees from joining unions? 1. Have them take an oath saying that they wouldn't join a union; 2. Have workers sign contracts that stated they would not join a union.
What does the term "injunction" mean/ refer to? This term refers to a formal court order that directs a union or other group or business to stop a certain action. (Pg. 205)
Which union was the dominant union of the 1800's? The American Federation of Labor.
What were the AFL's 3 main goals? 1. Convince companies to recognize unions; 2. Push for closed shops; 3. Promotion of an 8 - hour work day.
What did railroad managers do to try to break up the Pullman Strike? They attached U.S. mail cars to the Pullman cars so that - if they refused to handle the Pullman cars, they would be interfering with the U.S. mail, which is a federal offense.
What is a "trust"? "A new way of merging business."
What happened during the Haymarket Riot of 1886? In 1886, people gathered to hear speeches by McCormick Harvesting Machine Company strikers. Police moved in to keep order when speeches ended. Someone threw a bomb that killed 1 officer & wounded 6. Police shot back, about 100 people were injured.
What "association" hurt the Knights of Labor's reputation, leading to a decline in membership? The association between the Knights of Labor and the Haymarket Riot led to this union's decline.
Who or what were the Pinkerton Detective Agency? This was a group of private detectives who were part of a security agency. They were called in to help keep order between strikers & strikebreakers during the Homestead Strike.
What happened during the Homestead Strike of 1892? Steel mill owner by Henry Frick locked the steel mill he owned after proposing a 20% pay cut for employees & bringing in the Pinkerton Detective Agency to protect the building after mill employees picketed in front of the building.
What was the main reason that the country was split into 4 time zones in the late 1800's? This was done to prevent train collisions.
How did the development of trains and railroad networks in the late 1800's impact society? This made it easier and cheaper to move goods and people across the U.S.
What does the term "closed shops" mean/ refer to? This term refers to companies that only hire workers who were union members. (Pg. 206)
What does the term "Marxism" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the theory created by Karl Marx that stated "the basic force shaping capitalist society (was) the class struggle between workers and business owners." (Pg. 202)
What does the term "industrial union" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "unions which unite(d) all workers in a particular industry". (Pg. 201)
What does the term "stock" mean/ refer to as it relates to economics? This term refers to shares of ownership in certain companies that can be purchased by consumers. (Pg. 194)
How does the term "laissez-faire" relate to business and economics? This term refers to the idea that the government should take a "hands off" approach when it comes to regulating businesses.
Created by: sticklerpjpII