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Midterm for 290F

The 40 IDs for the Exam

QuestionAnswer
Fertile Crescent It is the crescent that encompassed the land from the Zagros mountains to the Mediterranean. It was significant b/c this area has dry farming. This caused the nomads to permanantely Pre-bronze age. or Neolithic age.
Bulla a clay ball that holds tokens. c.4000 BC They are significant b/c bullas turn from clay balls with tokens to no tokens and then turns into a seal with the amount. and turns into the first writing.
Cuneiform is a form of writing with clay and reeds etched into them. Cuneiform is significant because it was the internationally known form of writing also b/c it was written on clay we it has preserved and we can excavate more of it.
Sumerian Sumer was during the Neolithic Revolution c. 7000 b.c. dry farming when crops can grow without the help of human.s
Temple Economy Nippur and each city having to give a certain amount of things to Nippur and then things would be distributed.
E.D. I 2900-2700 B.C. " The Golden Age". Mythology, cont. economic texts sum. king list. Each city state belonged to a god. reflection of the God's estate. man was created to do the work of the Gods.
E.D. II 2700-2500 b.c. "Heroic Age" Focus is human and not devine beings. Lugal -big man leader! "king of kish" city of kish for a period owned all of Babylonia.
E.D. III 2500-2300 B.C. "the dynastic age" This is when they turned from "big man" to from one man to his son and so on down the line. This changed everything from things that they had done in the past. Kingship becomes institutionalized.
Sumerian King List It is the order of Kings and how long they rule. All of Babylonia and Mesopotamia. It is significant because it shows which people were more
en En was a priest in the society who also "ruled" the city. The cities they believed belong to a certain God so that is why the en was in charge. 2700c.
lugal lugal means "big man" during the time of the heroic age.c.2500 the man who was the strongest got to rule the city. it is significant b/c there is a shift from religious to men who are strong.
"King of Kish" The King of Kish what he really means is "king of the universe" the city of Kish for a period owned all of Babylonia.
The Stele of Vultures a stone slab thats inscribed. lagash over umma conflict. lagash victory!
Akkadian a new city and a new language. coming from the north. theophoric: cities or king with God's names. Akkad was the worlds first empire
Sargon first king of the Akkadians. Sargon birth legend. "foundling, but mother was a high priestess". The king is LEGIT! Used this account so that no one would doubt him as a king. He becomes a ruler all rulers want to emulate.
Naram-Sin he was the first king to be depicted as a God. Naram-Sin was sacreligious. and because he talked badly about Marduk(bab. god) so Marduk sent the Guteans on them
The Victory Stele of Naram-Sin depicted himself as a god with the horned helmet. he was stepping over other people. institued the thought of kings as gods.
The Guteans was a minor city state but it laid the foundation for a new flowering sumerian culture. creative writing. conquered Akkad.
Gudea Gudea of Lagash imported a lot of timber and many statues of himself. irrigation. trade. and religious pursuits.
Ur-Nammu k c.2100 first ruler to be classified with the Gods. ziggurat of ur which influenced religious architecture. irrigation. quays for overseas trade.
Ziggurat not burial chambers it is a temple. Gods live in middle heaven between earth and the sky so the ziggurat brings you closer to them.
Third Dynasty of Ur c. 2100 Nippur/Lagash the important cities. hammurapi. sumerian king list.
bala system system of using bullas and tokens
Law code of Ur-Nammu first law code and it would be how other people would describe their laws down the line.
Year Names Named the year over most importatnt thing was that happened that year. The significance is because we get to see what they would think is significant to happenen which is a lot of the time very different from what we think should be.
Old Assyrian Period 2000 b.c. when the Assyrian dialect of the Akkadian language is first written. The period is best known for the Assyrian trading colonies established in Anatolia for the exchange of textiles and tin for silver and gold.
Kultepe/Kanesh A city that had contact with other ares through amarna letters. caught on fire in a catastrope and has a lot of evidence now b/c it was abandoned.
substantavist/formalist debate Formalist (modernist) believes modern economic principals exist in the past. Substantivist (primitive) No! nothing modern. you can't use words like markets and money. On their own terms different economy
Tell el-amarna The letters writen by the by the 4 biggest powers during the 14th century b.c. called eachother "brothers" and shared gifts. there was still trouble.
Hittites took over yamhad. manage to fight the mitanni and sack washakanni and bring down the kingdom The assyrians establish themselves as a power.
Mitanni 14th and 15th century. it stretched from the Mediterranean on the west to Assyria. capital was washukanni. well known for horse raising. out of mitanni fall from the hittites came assyria.
Kassites in babylonia new empire- the Kassites. specialists in horse training. known for boundary stones
Sea Peoples "they brought their wives and children" so it wasn't a conquest. were facing problems in their areas so they moved down to Egypt.
Asur-Dan II 934-912 b.c. he tries to get back old assyrian land. still sees it as their land. destroyed cities and killed people in the land and claimed the land back for assyria. defensive militarism. economic gain and ideology of a king
Ashurnasirpal II (Assurnasirpal) 883-859. campaigns to the west. 3-4 years ends up on the coas.t not for control. military garrisons around the euphrates.
Shamaneser III Son of Ashurnasirpal II. 859 BC series of campaigns against eastern tribes. His reign ended in disaster great revolt from Nineveh all western conq. were nullified. His son was able to calm down the riots.
Tiglath-pileser III a usurper? splits provinces smaler. scale deportations. gives 4 generals per province. makes a standing army.
Sargon II killed in battle. 721-705. defeats uratu.uses sargons name from before to become king and show that he can trace his ancestory back.
Sennacherib puts down rebellion in Judeah. 4 approaches to babylon.
Assurbanipal library with Babylonian texts and texts from all over the empire. sign. because they didnt defeat babylon b/c of the texts and ended up in the assyrian demise.
Created by: rcmaroon12