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His Exam 3 ch17

Reconstruction after civll war

QuestionAnswer
What were the years throughout which the reconstruction took place? 1863 - 1877 (started during the civil war)
The reconstruction was a period of...? ...political complexity and social turbulence that generated far-reaching implications for American life.
Three major questions of the reconstruction are were? who has the power to reconstruct - executive or congress. what to do with former confederates ? 5/ 6 million african americans, are now people--what to do with them?
What were two ideas about what to do with the confederates? Admit them to the union with little or no changes to their regions or politics. Others wanted the regions and politics completely changed, and them punished.
What were the differing views on who had the authority to reconstruction the south after the war between congress and the president? Congress believed since they had the authority admit states to the union, and the south had officially seceded, they were the ones in-charge of readmission. Lincoln believed he could do it by his own accord 1863 - 1864
In the Homestead Act of _____, Congress provided free... 1862, federal homesteads of 160 acres to settlers, who had only to occupy the land for five years to gain title. No cash was needed.
Throughout the South, describe post-war property values, paper currency and bond statuses, and the railroads? , property values had collapsed. Confederate bonds and paper money were worthless; most railroads were damaged or destroyed.
What was the cost of emancipation in the south, post war? $4 billion invested in human flesh and left the labor system in disarray.
After the war, how were the southerns responding emotionally? They were pretty pissed off. Most people cursed and detested the union soliders sent down as miltiary occupation to instill order. It was very emotionally fraught.
Former slaves had no _____, no homes, no _______., and people in the north argued they needed ______. no land, no home, no food, and they needed land.
In coastal South Carolina and in Mississippi, former slaves had been_____? What happened later in 1865 regarding this? “given” land by Union armies after they had taken control of Con- federate areas during the war. But such transfers of white-owned property to former slaves were reversed during 1865.
Delaney, in ________, spoke to former slaves and said......? He believed slavery had ended because they fought the confederacy in the union army. He also dismissed southern claims that blacks couldn't handle being free. He suggested that they get farm land and communities. Self-reliance was the theme.
How did Delaney's remarks affect white planters, and even Federal army? They often believed that Delaney was promoting rebellion, and hated the white race. They siad Delaney contradict the gov. suggestion that freedmen should work for their former masters as long as possible.
Where did Delaney address a group of freemen (former slaves)? And what rank was Delaney? St. Helena Island off the SC Coast.. Major 104th US Colored troops
What was the first federal experiment in social welfare? March 3, 1865, Congress created the Bureau of Refugees, Freedmen, & Abandoned Lands. issues of provisions, clothing, and fuel” as might be needed to relieve “destitute and suffering refugees and freedmen and their wives and children.”
In May 1865, ________, commissioner of the Freemen's bureau, said, __________ Gen. Oliver Howard, freed slaves “must be free to choose their own employers, and be paid for their labor.
What was the proclamation of amnesty & Reconstruction and who issued it? And about when? In late 1863,Pres. Lincoln.Any former Rebel state could form a Union gov. whenever a number equal to 10 percent of those who had voted in 1860 took an oath of allegiance to the Cont. & the Union & had received a pres. pardon.
Who was exempt from Lincoln's Proclamation of Amnesty & Reconstruction of 1863? Conf. officials; senior officers rebel army & navy; judges, congressmen, & military officers of the US who had left their Fed posts to aid the rebellion; & those accused of failure to treat captured black soldiers and their officers as prisoners of war.
Many republican congressman _____ with the presidents notion that he could grant pardons and supervise recontruction. They believed what? Disagreed. The it implied that Congress, not the president, should supervise Reconstruction.
What type of republicans support congressional control of the reconstruction program? Radical republicans.
When was the wade davis bill passed? Who passed it? in 1864, Rad. Rep. helped pass the Wade-Davis Bill, sponsored by Senator Benjamin Franklin Wade of Ohio and Representative Henry Winter Davis of Maryland. - Pocket vetoed by lincoln
What did the Wade Davis Bill require? required that a majority of white male citizens declare their allegiance and that only those who could take an “ironclad” oath. Oath: “I have never fought against the union or the US government” - This allowed the state to be readmitted.
Passed during the closing day of the session, the ______ never became law: Lincoln vetoed it. Wade-Davis Bill
What was the Wade Davis Manifesto? the Wade-Davis Manifesto, which accused the president of exceeding his constitutional authority., penned by Radical republicans
Lincoln offered his last view of Reconstruction in his final public address, on )_______ Speaking from the White House balcony, he pronounced _______ April 11, 1865., he pronounced that the Confederate states had never left the Union.
When was lincoln shot? On the evening of April 14, 1865
Who became president after Lincoln? Andrew Johnson of Tennessee, a combative man who lacked most presidential virtues. Johnson was provincial and bigoted—he harbored fierce prejudices. He was also short-tempered and impetuous.
What did President Johnson say about Reoncstruction in 1865? In 1865, he declared that “there is no such thing as reconstruction. I preferred the term restoration.
When did Johnson issue his new Proclamation of Amnesty? And what were the differences? May 1865, Barred people with taxable property worth more than 20,000--the wealthy planters he detested, but they were allowed to make special pardon pleas to the president directly. issued 13,000 pardons.
Johnson called upon the state conventions to invalidate the________, _______, and __________ And what about the 13th amendment? secession ordinances,abolish slavery, repudiate all debts incurred to aid the Confederacy. Each state, moreover, had to ratify the Thirteenth Amendment ending slavery.
What happened the first time congress met after the war? Congress denied seats to all confederate officials. It was too much to expect, after four bloody years, that the Unionists in Congress would welcome back ex-Confederate leaders. Souther voters acted in extreme disregard for the north.
What were the Black Codes? Repressive. designed to restrict the freedom of blacks, demonstrated that South intended to preserve slavery as nearly as possible. “The ex-slave was not a free man; he was a free Negro,” and the black codes were intended to highlight the distinction.
The new congress -- without these southern seat holders -- set-up a committee to do what regarding reconstruction? nine members from the House and six from the Senate, to gather evidence of southern efforts to thwart Reconstruction. Benjamin Wade of Ohio, George Washington Julian of Indiana Thaddeus Stevens of Pennsylvania & Charles Sumner of Massachusetts.
The Republicans needed ________ votes to maintain their control of Congress and the White House African American
When was the first Civil Rights act passed and by whom? In mid-March 1866 the Radical-led Congress passed the Civil Rights Act, written by Illinois senator Lyman Trumbull
What did the first Civil Rights act declare? “all persons born in the United States and not subject to any foreign power, excluding Indians not taxed,” were citizens entitled to “full and equal benefit of all laws.”
Johnson believed that the Civil Rights was ? Exceeding the scope of federal power.
When was the 14th Amendment ratified? on July 28, 1868
The Military Reconstruction Act was hailed—or denounced—as the ....? triumphant victory of Radical Reconstruction, for it set a precedent among former slave societies in providing voting rights to freed slaves almost immediately after emancipation
What was Texas v. White (1869).? In that case the Court asserted the right of Congress to reframe state governments, thus endorsing the Radical Republican point of view.
How and when was President Johnson Impeached? violated the tenure of office act 8/12/1867, during a cong. recess, he suspended Stanton & named Grant in his place.Senate refused to confirm Johnson’s action, Grant returned the office to Stanton. Result: Impeached filed, 1868. - failed
In June 1868, Congress agreed that eight southern states—all but ____, ___ and____— had met the more stringent conditions for readmission. Virginia, Mississippi, and Texas
During the era of Reconstruction, whites,_______, harbored racist views of blacks. both northern and southern
How did Southerns suppress black efforts to gain social and economic equality? White southerners also used terror, intimidation, and violence to suppress black efforts to gain social and economic equality.
What was the primary vocation of many poor whites and freed blacks in the south? Sharecropping, in which the crop produced was divided between the tenant farmer and the landowner. Sharecropping enabled mothers and wives to contribute directly to the family’s income.
A white newspaper called many Southern legislatures a ...? Despite the populationg of these legislature not being dominated by black americans. it a body consisting of “baboons, monkeys, mules . . . and other jackasses.”
Name the black senators in congress, and give how many were in the house? There were two black senators in Congress, Hiram Revels and Blanche K. Bruce, both Mississippi natives who had been educated in the North, and fourteen black members of the House of Representatives during Reconstruction.
What is a carpet bagger or salawag? The top positions in postwar southern state governments went for the most part to white Republicans, whom the opposition whites labeled “carpetbaggers” and “scalawags,” depending upon their place of birth.
A scalawag was a ? Give the name of one. A native southern who opposed secession. general James Longstreet, who decided after Appomattox that the Old South must change its ways.
Grant served as president when what was happening to the republican party? WHen the republican party was collapsing.
When was Grant Elected? And what was his nickname? 1868 northern voters supported the “Lion of Vicksburg” because of his record as the Union army commander.
Grant defeated Horatio Seymour in the election of _____. More than ______ voites were black votes, which accounted for Grant's victory. 1868. 500,000 African American voters accounted for Grant’s margin of victory.
Other than _________, Grants cabinet overflowed with ___________ Hamilton Fish, Incompetants
What plagued the presidency of Grant the most? What did the treasury do? Financial issues. After the war, the Treasury had assumed that the $432 million worth of greenbacks issued during the conflict would be retired from circulation and that the nation would revert to a “hard-money” currency—gold coins.
What was the public credit act and when was it signed? On March 18, 1869, the Public Credit Act, which said that the federal debt must be paid in gold, became the first act of Congress that Grant signed.
Grant's presidency was also marked by... Many scandals, most of them financial. One where his brother in law and Fisk hiked up the value of Gold. However, the gov. sold high amounts of gold popping the bubble.
When was the KKK formed? Who formed it? And what was the goal? 1866. by some young men of Pulaski, Tennessee, as a social club, with the costumes and secret rituals common to fraternal groups. At first a group of pranksters, its members soon turned to intimidation of blacks and white Republicans.
How did congress fight back against the KKK and other white terror groups? the Republican-dominated Congress struck back with three Enforcement Acts (1870–1871) to protect black voters
The first enforcement act against groups like the KKK did...? The first of these measures levied penalties on anyone who interfered with any citizen’s right to vote.
The second enforcement act against KKK and the like? A second placed the election of congressmen under surveillance by federal election supervisors and marshals.
The third enforcement act against KKK and the like? 3rd. KKK act outlawed the characteristic activities of KKK forming conspiracies, wearing disguises, resisting officers, and intimidating officials—and authorized the president to suspend habeas corpus where necessary to suppress “armed combinations.”
What was United States v. Cruikshank (1876) and it's significance? In 1876, the U.S. Supreme Court gave implied sanction to the Col- fax Massacre when it ruled in United States v. Cruikshank (1876) that states’ rights trumped federal authority when it came to protecting freed blacks from white terrorists.
The election of 1876 marked the end of _________ reconstruction.
The election of 1876 was between who? Hayes, Tilden.
When was the special electoral commission formed and what was their decision regarding the election of 1876 January 29, 1877, the Congress decided to set up a special Electoral Commission with fifteen members, five each from the House, the Senate, and the Supreme Court. They voted for Hayes.
President Hayes did what that in part ended reconstructions? And when? In 1877, new president Hayes withdrew federal troops from Louisiana and South Carolina, and those states’ Republican governments collapsed soon thereafter.
Created by: aiur100