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US History Sem1

QuestionAnswer
The Compromise of 1850 Union has 15 free & 15 slave states; CA applies for admission as a free state. 4-part Compromise: is admitted as free state; UT & NM can decide for themselves; slave trade prohibited in D.C.; federal marshals must assist in recapturing escaped slaves.
Manifest Destiny The notion that the U.S. is a superior country and has the right to invade, conquer, and occupy the North American continent and beyond.
The Gold Rush 1949 people "rush" to California with "gold fever" hoping to strike it rich; largest migration of people to California; 1859 ends when silver is discovered in Nevada.
The Monroe Doctrine 1823 Monroe warns no more European colonies in the Western Hemisphere, no foreign military expeditions, and that no European country should interfere in U.S. affairs, at home or abroad. His words lay the cornerstone of American foreign policy.
Bill of Rights Some states refuse to ratify Constitution without Bill of Rights; Madison presents 12 amendments; only 10 are ratified incl freedom of speech, religion, press & assembly; only 10 are added
Articles of Confederation Creates natl gvt; each state has 1 vote, power to declare war, conduct foreign policy, establish postal system; cannot collect taxes; changes only by unanimous vote; takes 4 years to ratify, until all states surrender their Western lands to congress.
Life in the 1800s Whites displace Natives; small farms; men hunt, women spin yarn, weave, milk cows, cook, raise children; make soap, candles, sugar; mftg & export; Industrial Revolution; immigrants; transportation revolution.
Farm life in the 1920s Industry & technology boomed; standard of living improved; new equipment helped produce more crops than the country could consume; supply exceeded demand & farmers suffered when their goods dropped in price.
Imperialism The policy of establishing economic, political, and military dominance over weaker nations, on humanitarian and moral grounds.
Gilded Age Robber barons show off outrageous displays of wealth; some give back by supporting the arts, education, culture, public works, establishing foundations; not enough to solve the problems caused by industrialization and population growth.
Social Gospel Movement A group of progressives who feel the church should improve life on Earth rather than just getting people into Heaven; Pastor Walter Rauschenbusch blames fierce competition and environmental conditions for social ills.
Trail of Tears 1838 Cherokee expulsion from Georgia: soldiers forced 18K from their homes & marched them 1000 miles to what is now Oklahoma; nearly 4000 died from exposure, hardship, cholera & malnutrition.
Tammany Hall The most famous political machine in the country, headquartered in New York City.
Political corruption of the 1800s Plagues Grant's admin; officials steal excise taxes; Sect of War accepts bribes; Grant accepts personal gifts; politicians appoint friends to govt positions; greedy & dishonest; carpetbaggers; underhanded tactics like gerrymandering & poll taxes.
Americanization movement Roosevelt believes immigrants' old habits should be stripped away and replaced with new American ones; others fear they are destroying American culture and undermining the government and economic system.
Seneca Falls Convention NY Jul 1848 to discuss social, civil & religious rights of women; passed Decl of Sentiments, with resistance to suffrage; marked the birth of organized women's movement for equality; set a precedent & model for women to speak publicly on their own behalf.
Age of Enlightenment Aka Age of Reason that can solve every social, political & economic problem; challenged traditional customs & beliefs of a society based on divine-right rule, a strict class system & a belief in a heavenly reward for earthly suffering.
Industrialization Embargo & war, no imports; mfg & export booms; launches Industrial Revolution; textiles, shoes, furniture, carriages bought from factories hundreds of miles away; govt funds build railroads & canals; unites country; conflicts develop.
Fourteen Points 1/8/1918 President Woodrow Wilson's plan for peace: freedom & equality of travel & trade, open agreements, self-determination, arms reductions, establishment of League of Nations; all were ultimately rejected.
Great Compromise 1-Senate each state 2 votes; 2-House, # is based on population of all free inhabitants + 3/5 of all slaves (who can't vote); Congress cannot ban slaves before 1808; same formula determines taxes; special conventions; only 9 of 13 states have to ratify.
Muckrakers Angry writers who motivate people w/research, vivid writing & intense moral outrage to awaken them to growing social, economic & political evils & inequities.
Paparazzi Photojournalists, generally using unethical methods to obtain scandalous information and photos.
Abraham Lincoln 1860 President; calls for 75K to suppress rebellion at Fort Sumter; dedicates a cemetery to the fallen soldiers at Gettysburg; doesn't care if slaves are freed, only about saving the Union; signs prelim Emancipation Proclamation freeing only some.
John Locke 17th century English thinker; believed people were basically reasonable & moral, and had certain natural rights (rights that belonged to all humans from birth), including the right to life, liberty & property.
Magna Carta The Great Charter; asserted that nobles (later all citizens) had certain rights & that the monarch must obey the law, that power was not absolute but limited (a key principle in democratic tradition).
Hero Journalists Looked back and forth through the textbook and cannot find a reference to this, but I would expect it to refer to those defending freedom of speech.
Advantages of the South in the Civil War 6 million fighters; more military & experience, local militia, skilled marksmen; commanded by General Robert E. Lee.
Advantages of the North in the Civil War 22 million fighters; includes immigrants & free or escaped slaves; raises a much larger army; almost all war resources - steel mills, iron mines, industry, transportation, railroads, naval ships - are located in the North.
Thomas Jefferson Writes Decl of Ind; supported by common people; supports France; wins 1800 Presidency; allows Acts to expire; reduces military spending; allows Bank of U.S. to exist; Embargo Act proves disastrous; repealed; buys Louisiana Territory for $15 million.
18th Amendment Prohibited the production, sale or transportation of alcoholic beverages.
19th Amendment Allowed women to vote in all elections, but laws and constitutions in the South are revised to prevent African Americans from voting.
21st Amendment Repealed the 18th Amendment; only one ever passed to overturn an earlier amendment; only one ratified by special state conventions instead of state legislatures.
Volstead Act Passed in 1919 to enforce prohibition; declared beverages of one-half of 1 percent of alcohol intoxicating.
Scopes Trial 1925 TN Butler Act no teaching any theory but Divine Creation as in the Bible; John Scopes goes on trial for teaching evolution to test legality; William Jennings Bryan prosecutes; Clarence Darrow defends; 10min to find guilty; Supreme Court acquits.
Sugar Act Enforces taxes on molasses & sugar imported from outside the British Empire; new/higher taxes on other imports like textiles, coffee & wine; prices skyrocket; restricts smugglers; widens division; Boston merchants petition, but make little impact.
Stamp Act 1765 Parliament taxes all official docs & publications to pay for British troops in North America; marriage licenses, mortgages, diplomas, bills of sale, newspapers, etc., require an official stamp to show tax has been paid; affects & angers everyone.
Intolerable Acts Five acts by Parliament in response to the Boston Tea Party: closed the port; took away self-government; trials to be held in England; quartering of British soldiers; extended boundaries.
Unjustifiable Acts Series of acts by the British (Sugar Act, Stamp Act, Currency Act, Declaratory Act, Townshend Act, Tea Act).
Boston Tea Party 1773 Parliament passes Tea Act to save East Indian Co from bankruptcy: only EIC can sell tea to colonies, must pay import tax; Sons of Liberty disguised as Mohawks toss 342 chests of tea into the harbor; Parliament closes harbor until the tea is paid for.
Checks and Balances Prevents any one governmental branch from becoming too powerful.
“Supreme Law of the Land” The U.S. Constitution.
Federal vs. State powers Federal powers are granted by the Constitution to the federal government (money, collect taxes, commerce, military, declare war, necessary and proper). State powers are reserved to the States or the people (levy taxes, borrow money, charter corporations).
Reconstruction 1865 proclamation gives amnesty to Confederates who sign oath of loyalty to Union; special pardons to political & military leaders & some landowners; 1867 Recon Acts abolish state govts formed under Johnson; divides South; stations troops.
Rehabilitation Is a process of therapy or education to facilitate recovery and refers to many things (Native Americans, slaves, social unrest, economy, politics, war).
Federalism A system of government in which power is divided between a central authority and constituent political units.
Trigger that began WWI The assassinations of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria and his wife.
Music movement in the 1920s The blues (which grew out of slaves' work songs and field chants) and jazz (which began with blacks in New Orleans; upbeat, improvised).
Progressive Movement Progressives fear concentration of power in the hands of wealthy few; believe a well run govt can protect public and restore order; they identify and publicize problems; win political, social & moral reforms; attack corruption; expand voting rights.
Main ideas of the Federalists Can't trust common people or those who didn't own property; Articles of Confederation are weak & ineffective; strong natl govt to function; quell rebellions; no Bill of Rights necessary; supported by the elite, wealthy, landowners, merchants.
Main ideas of the Anti-Federalists Mistrust people of wealth & talent; Articles of Confederation are good; Constitution makes natl govt too strong; threatens rights; supported by small self-sufficient farmers who found contact with government unpleasant
Harlem Renaissance A literary and artistic movement by African Americans ho expressed their own unique voices in exciting new ways.
Allied Powers of WWI Allied Powers: Russia, France, British Empire, Italy, Romania, United States. Central Powers: Germany, Austria-Hungary, Turkey, Bulgaria.
Gilded Age Repeat; see above
Year for Women to gain vote 1920 the 19th Amendment allows women to vote in all elections, but laws and constitutions in the South are revised to prevent African Americans from voting.
Prohibition Movement 1906 to 1919 laws limiting the sale of liquor are passed in 26 states; supported by Progressives who hope to wipe out poverty, crime & prostitution; 18th Amendment prohibits; Volstead Act enforces; 21st Amendment repeals.
Laissez Faire The "hands off" approach to economics, that a free market would eventually help everyone.
Robert E. Lee General commands South/Confederate army; Shiloh 4/1862 20K casualties; Antietam 9/1862 30K die; imp Union victory because it makes Britain reluctant to aid the South; Gettysburg 7/1863 28K casualties; crushing defeat; never recovers; 4/1865 surrenders.
Factors that shaped the North’s development Before the war? Causing the war? During the war? After the war? Conflict; slavery; war; compromise; hostilities; controversy; reconstruction.
What was the North called during the Civil War The North was aka the Union; the South was aka the Confederacy.
Created by: alexandrea79168