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Early Presidents


1803 Thomas Jefferson buys the Louisiana Purchase from Spain, doubling the size of the United States.
Alien & Sedition Act Started by Adams. They made it difficult to become citizens and declared restrictions against citizens who criticized the government during war time. Unconstitutional due to violating the 1st amendment of Free Speech and Free Press.
Andrew Jackson Favored the Common Man
Bank Wars Andrew Jackson did not renew the Federal Bank since he felt it benefited only the wealthy. It went against his belief of the Common Man.
Causes of the War of 1812 1.) British Impressment of US Sailors 2.) British support of Native American Resistance 3.) War Hawks
Democratic-Republicans Madison and Jefferson 1.) Strict interpretation of the Constitution 2.) Small government 3.) No National Bank 4.) Supported by farmers
Effects of the War of 1812 1.) Era of Good Feeling (Increased National Pride and Patriotism) 2.) Growth of American industry and manufacturing 3.) Being respected by the rest of the world due to our success
Embargo Act of 1807 Prohibited Americans from trading with foreign nations. Meant to keep us out of war/Hurt our economy. Imports and exports dropped.
Era of Good Feelings A time of unity and patriotism in America after the War of 1812. Increased Nationalism.
Events of War of 1812 1. Attack on Washington D.C. (White House is burned) 2. Battle of New Orleans where Jackson defeated the British and he becomes a National Hero.
Expanded Suffrage Under Jackson. Removed the property requirement to vote (Common Man)
Federalist Party Hamilton and Adams 1. Loose interpretation of the Constitution 2. Wanted National Bank 3. Supported by merchants in the North
Foreign Policy government actions in relation to other countries
Impact of Washington's Farewell Address He said to stay NEUTRAL in world affairs and to stay away from forming political parties because they are harmful.
Impressment forcing someone into service for an organization of government. The British impressment of US sailors was a cause of the War of 1812.
Indian Removal Act 1830 under Jackson. It was a way to end the fighting between Natives and white settlers. Natives were moved/relocated to the west side of the Mississippi into Louisiana Territory.
isolationism policy of separating and not participating in international relationships.
Issues under Andrew Jackson 1. Jacksonian Democracy 2. Indian Removal Act/Trail of Tears 3. Nullification Crisis 4. Bank Wars
Issues under John Adams XYZ Affair, Alien and Sedition Act, Midnight Appointments
Thomas Jefferson 3rd President Louisiana Purchase (1803) Embargo Act (1807)
Issues under Washington Massive debt and Whiskey Rebellion
James Madison President during War of 1812
James Monroe Monroe Doctrine (1823) Gained Florida from Spain to pay off debt (1819)
Jacksonian Democracy Expanded Suffrage Spoils System
John Marshall Appointed Chief Justice of the Supreme Court by President Adams. He set the precedent of judicial review in the landmark Supreme Court Case Marbury v. Madison (1803).
Louisiana Purchase 1803 by Thomas Jefferson and purchased from France. It doubled the size of the U.S.
Marbury v. Madison 1803. Started when Adams sent out Midnight Judgeships and Marbury did not receive his. The Supreme Court set the precedent of Judicial Review, where they can declare acts of Congress unconstitutional.
McCulloch v. Maryland 1819. Maryland wanted to tax a branch of the federal bank in its borders. Supreme Court said the state didn't have the authority to do so. Federal government is upheld as the supreme law of the land.
Midnight Appointments Commissions were send to judges on the last night of Adams' presidency. James Madison was instructed to stop the delivery of the appointments.
Monroe Doctrine 1823. Monroe declared that the Western Hemisphere (North and Latin America) was forever free and independent from European Powers. Europe stay out! No more colonization in the Americas.
Neutrality remaining independent and not taking sides in an issue.
nullification the idea that states can refuse to follow federal laws.
Nullification Crisis 1832. Southern states were going to ignore federal laws because of unfair tariffs. South Caroline threatened to secede. They said that imports couldn't be taxed when a state sees actions as unconstitutional.
Reasons for Removal White settlers wanted Native American land/gold found in Georgia.
Tariff of Abominations The "Tariff of 1828" was a protective tariff passed by the U.S. Congress on May 19, 1828. It was designed to protect industry in the North.
Washington Precedents 1. Selected a Cabinet 2. Served only 2 terms (showing restraint of power)
Whiskey Rebellion 1791. Farmers in Western Pennsylvania staged a rebellion against a government tax on whiskey and the grain it was made from. It was decreasing their profits on the grain. Washington sent out federal troops to put down the uprising, and the rebels fled.
XYZ Affair 1797. Three anonymous French agents brought France and the U.S. to the brink of war when France demanded a bribe from the U.S. in order to keep them from taking U.S. ships.
Created by: anna.melton
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