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SOC CH. 8 2020

Mr. Stickler's Liberty Christian Sociology Chapter 8 Flashcards 2020

QuestionAnswer
What is an example of "inequality of opportunity"? This relates to a system by which a society ranks categories of people in a hierarchy. (Pg. 247)
What does the term "caste system" mean/ refer to? A caste system is "a system of social inequality in which people's status is permanently determined at birth based on their parents' ascribed characteristics". (Pg. 219)
What does the term "class system" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a type of stratification based on ownership & control of resources & on the type of work people do". (Pg. 222)
Social stratification based on personal merit is known as a/an _____________________. Meritocracy. (Pg. 250)
What do the Conflict theorists (also known as Marxists) believe about social stratification in Capitalist societies? Karl Marx believed that capitalist society reproduces the class structure in each new generation. (Pg. 259)
What are "blue - collar occupations"? "Lower-prestige work that involves mostly manual labor". (Pg. 268)
What are "white-collar occupations"? "Higher-prestige work that involves mostly mental activity". (Pg. 268)
What does the term "Inequality of Opportunity" mean/ refer to? It refers to "the unequal distribution of life chances across individuals". (Class notes.)
What does the term "Inequality of Condition" mean/ refer to? It refers to "refers to the unequal distribution of income, wealth, and material goods". (Class notes.)
What is an example of "inequality of opportunity"? In class, we talked about studies done in the 1980's that indicated college professors were more likely to ignore emails from women and minority students, creating an "inequality of opportunity" for those groups. (Class notes.)
What is an example of "inequality of condition"? In class, I gave the example of some Americans living in multi-million dollar mansions while others are homeless. This is an example of "inequality of condition". (Class notes.)
After paying their essential bills (ex: utilities, insurance, car payment, groceries, etc.), how much money does the typical family living at the poverty line have left each month/week? Families in this situation have about $170 per month - or $42.40 per week - left after paying these expenses. (Class notes.)
What does the term "income" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the economic gain derived from wages, salaries, income transfers (ex: government aid), & property ownership. (Pg. 233)
What does the term "intergenerational mobility" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the social movement experienced by family members from one generation to the next". (Pg. 216)
What does the term "intragenerational mobility" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the social movement of individuals within their own lifetime". (Pg. 216)
What does the term "social mobility" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the movement of individuals or groups from one level in a stratification system to another". (Pg. 216)
What does the term "wealth" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the value of all of a person's or family's economic assets, including income, personal property, and income-producing property". (Pg. 224)
What does the term "prestige" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the respect or regard with which a person or status position is regarded by others". (Pg. 224)
How did Max Weber explain social stratification? He explained this in terms of a person or family's wealth, power, and prestige. He noted that everyone falls in different places on each of these scales, which - he believed - best illustrates stratification in capitalist societies. (Pgs. 224 - 225)
What are the three (3) factors that are taken into account when computing "socioeconomic status"? 1. Income, 2. Occupation, 3. Education. (Pg. 224)
What does the term "power" mean/ refer to where social stratification is concerned? This term means "the ability of people or groups to achieve their goals despite opposition from others". (Pg. 224)
According to Max Weber's "sociological model of the U.S. class structure", who makes up the "underclass"? The "poor, seldom employed, and those caught in long - term deprivation that results from low levels of education & income & high rates of unemployment". (Pg. 229)
According to Max Weber, what are "pink - collar occupations"? These are "relatively low-paying, nonmanual, semiskilled positions primarily held by women". (Pg. 227)
List one (1) example of a "pink - collar occupation". One (1) example of this type of occupation are "checkout clerks". (Another that Weber lists are "daycare workers".) (Pgs. 227 & 228)
When does "absolute poverty" exist? This exists "when people do not have the means to secure the most basic necessities of life". For example, if someone is homeless during the winter months, they are at a very high risk of becoming hypothermic and freezing to death. (Pg. 240)
When does "relative poverty" exist? This exists "when people may be able to afford basic necessities, but are still unable to maintain an average standard of living". (Pg. 240)
What does the term "feminization of poverty" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the trend in which women are disproportionately represented among individuals living in poverty". (Pg. 242)
What does the term "job deskilling" mean/ refer to? This is "a reduction in the proficiency needed to perform a specific job that may lead to a corresponding reduction in the wages for that job". (Pg. 243)
How do functionalist theorists explain social inequality in the U.S.? These theorists believe that some degree of social inequality is necessary for the smooth functioning of society, and thus is inevitable. (Pg. 246)
How do Symbolic Interactionist theorists explain social inequality in the U.S.? These theorists state that "the beliefs and actions of people reflect their class location in society". (Pg. 246)
What is one major difference between "class systems" and "caste systems"? One major difference between these is that people have an opportunity to move up in "class systems", while they usually cannot in "caste systems".
List one (1) of the ways that people living in Peña Blanca overcome the effects of "absolute poverty"? 1.) Take advantage of microloans from places like Grameen; 2.) Pool their resources for the benefit of everyone (ex: Antonio & his neighbors giving $12/month) until all benefit; 3.) Find ways to make do without things that cost money (ex: electricity).
What does the term "social stratification" mean/refer to? The "hierarchical arrangement of large social groups based on their control over basic resources".
What does the term "wealth" mean according to Max Weber's Theory of Social Inequality? Weber stated that this term refers to the monetary value of everything a person owns that can be sold for money including income property.
What does the term "prestige" mean according to Max Weber's Theory of Social Inequality? Weber stated that this term refers to the respect or regard with which a person or status position is regarded by others.
What does the term "power" mean according to Max Weber's Theory of Social Inequality? Weber stated that this term refers to "the ability of people or groups to achieve their goals despite opposition from others".
What does the term "Socioeconomic Status (SES)" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a combined measure that, in order to determine class location, attempts to classify individuals, families, or households in terms of factors such as income, occupation, and education".
List the 6 social classes that Max Weber believed made up society? 1. The Upper Class (Capitalist class); 2. The Upper Middle Class; 3. The Middle Class; 4. The Working Class; 5. The Working Poor; 6. The Underclass.
What do Conflict Theorists believe where social inequality is concerned? These theorists believe that the upper class uses their power to maintain their position in society.
What does the term "mechanical solidarity" mean/ refer to? This term refers to Emile Durkheim's ideas related to the social cohesion of preindustrial societies, in which there is minimal division of labor and people feel united by shared values and common social bonds.
What does the term "organic solidarity" mean/ refer to? This term refers to Emile Durkheim's ideas related to the social cohesion in industrial societies (& postindustrial) in which people perform very specialized tasks and feel united by their mutual dependence.
What is the difference between "gemainschaft" and gesellschaft" according to Ferdinand Toonies? The difference between these two terms is that "gemeinschaft" refers to social relationships found in traditional societies while "gesellschaft" refers to the social relationships found in urban societies.
What does the term "master status" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the most important status that a person occupies".
What does the term status mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a socially defined position in a group or society characterized by certain expectations, rights, and duties".
What is the difference between "achieved status" and "ascribed status"? The difference between these terms is that "achieved status" refers to status that a person gains through personal effort and accomplishment, while "ascribed status" refers to status that a person is born with.
What does the term "status symbol" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "material signs that inform others of a person's specific status".
Give one (1) example of a "status symbol" from "Living on One Dollar". In "Living on One Dollar", Antonio and his family have a stove. This shows their status as part of the lower-upper to lower-middle class (by their community's standards) as he is the only one who has a "regular" job and makes a modest income.
What does the term "role" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a set of behavioral expectations associated with a given status".
Give one (1) example of the term "role" from either "Living on One Dollar". Children living in very poor families in Pena Blanca are expected to work to bring additional money to their family.
What does the term "social institution" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a set of organized beliefs and rules that establish how a society will attempt to meet its basic social needs".
List the 5 "basic social institutions" in society. 1.) Family; 2.) Religion; 3.) Education; 4.) The Economy; 5.) Government/ politics.
List the 4 additional social institutions that were added to the "5 basic social institutions" during the modern era. 1.) Mass Media; 2.) Sports; 3.) Science & medicine; 4.) The military.
Created by: sticklerpjpII
 

 



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