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Mr. Stickler's Liberty Christian HNRS HIST Unit 4 Test Flashcards 2021

What did the Judiciary Act of 1789 establish? 1. A Supreme Court; 2. 13 district courts; 3. 3 circuit courts; 4. Empowered the Supreme Court to review state court decisions; 5. Empowered the Supreme Court to nullify state laws that violated the Constitution or any treaties made.
What were the Bill of Rights and why were they added to the Constitution? They are the first ten Amendments to the Constitution. They were added to fulfill a promise that James Madison made during the process of ratifying ("approving") the U.S. Constitution.
What does the term "civil liberties" mean? Civil Liberties = Fundamental individual rights.
Who was citizen Edmond Genet? Otherwise known as "Citizen Genet", he was a French diplomatic ambassador who was sent to try to gather support for the French Revolution among Americans.
What were "Democratic - Republican Societies"? There were 35 of these groups that sprang up between 1793 & 1794 "to serve as a platform for expressing the public's will, insisting that elected officials were "agents of the people, not their leaders, & so should do as the people wished.
What happened during the Whiskey Rebellion of 1794? Angry Pennsylvanians who were opposed to a new federal excise tax on whiskey ransacked & burned the home of the federal excise inspector, then threatened a march on Pittsburgh.
What were two (2) things that resulted from the Treaty of Greenville? 1.) Native Americans gave away most of the land that later became Ohio; 2.) Indian reservations were established. (Pg. 199)
Why did President Washington send Chief Justice John Jay to England in early 1794? To try to get him to produce a compromise that would prevent war between Britain and the United States as the British had begun seizing U.S. ships who were trading with France in the Caribbean.
What was Chief Justice John Jay's mission when he was sent to Great Britain during the French Revolution? To calm tensions between the U.S. and Great Britain over the seizure of American ships in the French Caribbean Islands.
Who or what were "X,Y, and Z" (during the "X,Y,Z Affair")? These were the code names given to the French mediators who met with U.S. diplomats instead of the Marquis de Talleyrand.
What was the Naturalization Act? It extended the residency requirement for citizenship from 5 to 14 years, which made it harder for immigrants to vote.
What was the Alien Act? It authorized the president to deport any foreigner he judged "dangerous to the peace and safety of the United States".
What was the Alien Enemies Act? It permitted the president to banish or imprison any foreigner he considered dangerous during national emergency.
What happened during the X, Y, Z Affair (in general)? The U.S. sent 3 diplomats to negotiate peace with France but weren't allowed to meet the French Foreign Minister. Instead they met with 4 French mediators, who made outrageous demands on behalf of the French Foreign Minister.
What did political party members think about Democratic - Republican Societies (during President Washington's administration)? They were generally supportive of them. Politicians could attend meetings of these groups and discuss legislation
How did President Washington respond to the Whiskey Rebellion and why? He called up 13,000 militia to deal with the rebellion and led them himself! He did this so that the force that he brought would be large enough that the rebels would disperse as soon as rebels saw them.
What did "Citizen Genet" do that angered politicians, including President Washington? He tried to get American ship captains to agree to attack French vessels in support of the French Revolution.
List three (3) "civil liberties" that are guaranteed by the "Bill of Rights". 1.) Freedom of speech and religion; 2.) Protected against interference from the government; 3.) The right to bear arms.
List three (3) things that Alexander Hamilton did when he first became Secretary of the Treasury. 1.) Took out a $50,000 loan from the Bank of New York to keep government running; 2.) Organized a U.S. Customs Service to collect 5% import tax; 3.) Created the Coast Guard to prevent smuggling.
What were the names of the first two (2) political parties that formed? The "Federalists" and the "Anti-Federalists".
How did each of the two (2) political parties feel about Alexander Hamilton's new economic system? "Federalists" agree with Hamilton's new plan, while "Anti-Federalists" opposed it because they did not value banks or commercial (i.e. business) development.
Why were some states opposed to Hamilton's plan to pay off 100% of the nation's Revolutionary War debt? Some states were opposed to this because they had either almost entirely - or completely - paid off their share of the war debt.
What was one (1) thing that Alexander Hamilton feared would happen if the Bank of the United States wasn't created? He feared that Congress and the states would solve their financial problems by printing more paper money, which would lead to very high inflation rates. (Pg. 194)
How did President Washington and his administration officially respond after they received word that the French Revolution had begun? He and his administration issued a Proclamation of Neutrality. (Pg. 203)
What did the majority of Americans think about the French Revolution? The majority of people supported the French Revolution. (Pg. 203)
What did George Washington warn people about in his Farewell Address to the People (given in 1796)? In this, he stated that political parties (he called them "factions") were bad for American government. (Pg. 206)
Why did George Washington hold the beliefs about political parties that he stated in his Farewell Address? He believed this because he stated that he had seen how the "spirit of party" could foment "riot and insurrection" when he led the army against the Whiskey Rebels. (Pg. 206)
List two (2) of the demands that the French Foreign Minister - Charles Maurice de Talleyrand - made before he would meet with American diplomats. 1.) That a bribe of $250,000 would be paid to him personally; 2.) the U.S. would loan $10 to $12 million to the French government as "an apology for Adam's belligerent tone". (Pg. 206)
What does the term "republicanism" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a complex, changing body of ideas, values, & assumptions that developed in the U.S. in the late 1790's and early 1800's around Jefferson and Madison's political organizing". (Pg. 221)
List two (2) values that became part of the dominant ideology in the U.S. when Thomas Jefferson took office. 1.) Equality; 2.) Freedom.
What does the term "tariff" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a tax on imports into any nation".
What precedent was set as the result of the Supreme Court decision in the "Marbury vs. Madison" case? Judicial review.
What does the term "judicial review" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the idea that the U.S. Supreme Court can review all laws to determine their constitutionality.
What does the term "religious establishment" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a state church of to the creation of an 'established church' that might play a role in, and expect support and loyalty from, all citizens". (Pg. 227)
How did the Second Great Awakening begin? This began when preacher James McGready moved from Carolina to Kentucky & saw that Logan County, Kentucky was a place of "horse thieves, murderers, robbers, counterfeiters, & runaways" & wanted to get them to start going to church. (Pg. 228)
When was the first religious revival of the Second Great Awakening held (what year)? This revival was held in 1799.
Where was the largest religious revival of the Second Great Awakening held? This revival was held in Cane Ridge in Bourbon County, Kentucky.
List the names of the two (2) religious denominations who benefited most from the revivals of the Second Great Awakening. 1.) Methodists; 2.) Baptists.
What did many Southern plantation owners do where the religious life of their slaves was concerned? Many of these people allowed their slaves to hold their own religious services, although most sermons related to the virtues of submission and obedience. (Pg. 229)
What is one (1) thing that the Louisiana Purchase did/ accomplished? One thing that this did was to double the size of the United States.
What did President Jefferson ask Lewis and Clark and their Corps of Discovery to do relative to the Louisiana Purchase? He asked them to tour the entire area to study and categorize the people, lands, and animal and plant species of the N. American continent across the Louisiana Purchase to the Pacific Ocean.
What is one (1) way that Sacajawea helped to "protect" Lewis and Clark and the members of the Corps of Discovery? One way that she did this was by walking at the front of the group. Native Americans who saw the group pass by knew that any group being led by a female was not a war party, so they left them alone.
What does the term "War Hawks" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "members of Congress, mostly from the South and West, who aggressively pushed for a war against Britain after their election in 1810". (Pg. 238)
What did the Treaty of Ghent call for? A return of "all borders and issues" to their "pre-war positions".
What was the purpose of the Hartford Convention? This was "a meeting of Federalist delegates from the New England states to protest the continuation of the War of 1812".
What was the Adams - Onis Treaty? This treaty between the U.S. and Spain led to the American acquisition of Florida and the American rights in the Oregon Territory in return for a $5 million payment to Spain.
What did President James Monroe state in his "Monroe Doctrine"? He stated that the Western Hemisphere was closed to further European colonization and that the U.S. would not allow European interference in the internal affairs of independent nations anywhere in the Americas. (Pg. 245)
What did the Supreme Court case "Marbury vs. Madison" result in? This case resulted in the idea of "judicial review".
What does the term "judicial review" mean/ refer to? This term refers to the idea that the U.S. Supreme Court can review laws to ensure that they are Constitutional.
What was the "Second Great Awakening"? This was a series of religious revivals that took place in the first half of the 1800's. They began in Cane Ridge, Kentucky and were started by Reverend James McGready.
What was the name of the group of "civilian woodsmen, soldiers, and interpreters" that accompanied Lewis & Clark on their expedition to survey the territory of the Louisiana Purchase? This group was called the "Corps of Discovery".
What was the Embargo Act of 1807? This was a law that forbade American ships from leaving for foreign ports.
Why was the Embargo Act of 1807 passed? This Act was passed because President Thomas Jefferson feared that Great Britain would continue kidnapping American sailors and forcing them to work aboard British ships.
What was the Non-Intercourse Act of 1809? This was a law passed that replaced the Embargo Act of 1807. It allowed American merchants to trade with Great Britain and France (only).
Why was the Non-Intercourse Act of 1809 passed? This law was passed so that some trade with foreign countries would resume in an attempt to prevent the American economy from collapsing.
What was the Hartford Convention? This was a meeting of Federalists in December, 1814 to oppose the continuation of the War of 1812.
Created by: sticklerpjpII
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