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Chemistry I Chap 8

Vocab

TermDefinition
Conservation of Energy Law AKA first law of Thermodynamics; energy can be neither created nor destroyed. Thus, the total energy of an isolated system is constant
Endothermic A reaction in which heat is absorbed and the temperature of the surroundings falls
Energy The capacity to do work or supply heat
Enthalpy (H) The quantity E + PV
Enthalpy Change (^H) The heat change in a reaction or process at constant pressure ^H = ^E + P^V
Entropy (S) The amount of molecular randomness in a system
Exothermic A reaction in which heat is evolved and the temperature of the surroundings rises
First Law of Thermodynamics The total internal energy of an isolated system is constant
Gibbs Free-Energy Change (^G) ^G=^H-T^S
Heat The energy transferred from one object to another as the result of a temperature difference between them
Heat Capacity (C) The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of an object or substance a given amount
Heat of Combustion (^H'c) The amount of energy released on burning a substance
Heat of Reaction (^H) The enthalpy change for a reaction ^H
Hess's Law The overall enthalpy change for a reaction is equal to the sum of the enthalpy changes for the individual steps in the reaction.
Internal Energy (E) The sum of kinetic and potential energies for each particle in a system
Joule (J) The SI unit of energy, equal to 1 (kg*m^2)/s^2
Kinetic Energy (Ek) The energy of motion Ek=(1/2)mv^2
Molar Heat Capacity (Cm) The amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 mol of a substance 1'c
Potential Energy (Ep) Energy that is stored, either in an object because of its position or in a molecule because of its chemical composition
Specific Heat The amount of heat necessary to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance 1'c
Spontaneous Process One that proceeds on its own without any continuous external influence
Standard Enthalpy of Reaction (^H') Enthalpy change under standard-state conditions
Standard of Heat Formation (^H'f) The enthalpy change ^H'f for the hypothetical formation of 1 mol of substance in its standard state form from the most stable forms of its constituent elements in their standard states
State Function A function or property whose value depends only on the present condition of the system, not on the path used to arrive at that condition
Sublimination The direct converstion of a solid to a vapor without going through a liquid state.
Temperature A measure of the kinetic energy of molecular motion.
Thermochemistry A study of the heat changes that take place during reactions.
Thermodynamic Standard State Conditions under which thermodynamic measurements are reported 298.15 K (25'c) 1 atm pressure for each gas 1 M concentration for solutions
Work (w) The distance (d) moved times the force (F) that opposes the motion W=d*F
Created by: fenlien