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AP History 8&9

TermDefinition
Mercenary A professional soldier who serves in foreign army for pay. (Americans called the European mercenaries Hessians)
Indictment A formal written accusation charging someone with a crime.
Dictatorship A form of government characterized by absolute state power and unlimited, arbitrary control by the ruler of rulers.
Neutral A nation or person not taking sides in a war. (Many colonists were apathetic or neutral, around 1/3 of colonies, didn't really care about the independence.)
Civilian A citizen not in military service.
Traitor One who betrays a country by aiding an enemy.
Confiscate To seize private property for public use.
Envoy Messenger or agent sent by a government on official business. (Benjamin Franklin sent to Paris as an envoy)
Rabble A mass of disorderly and crude common people.
Blockade Isolation of a place by hostile ships or troops. (French had powerful fleets, in position to jeopardize Britain's blockade and lines of supply)
Privateer Private vessel temporarily authorized to capture or plunder enemy ships in wartime.
Graft Taking advantage of one's official position to gain money or property by illegal means.
Disestablish Separate an official state church from its connections w/ the government. (Protestant Episcopal Church)
Emancipation Setting free from slavery. (Northern states provided for the emancipation of blacks)
Chattel An article of personal or movable property (term applied to slaves since they were considered property of their owners)
Abolitionist Advocate for the end of slavery.
Ratification Official confirmation of a provisional governing document by authoritative approval. (Massachusetts submitted the final draft directly to the people for ratification)
Bill of Rights Document guaranteeing certain fundamental freedoms assumed to be central to society.
Speculators Buy property, goods, or financial instruments in anticipation of profitable resale after rise in value.
Township Unit of local gov. that is often based on survey units.
Territory In American gov., an organized political entity not yet enjoying full and equal status of the state.
Annex Incorporate smaller territory or political unit into a larger one.
Requisition Demand for something issued on the basis of public authority.
Foreclosure Seizing private property from the owner because legal payments have not been kept up. (Rev. War Veterans were losing their farms through foreclosures)
Quorum Minimum # of people who must be present in group before it can conduct business.
Anarchy Theory that formal government is unnecessary.
Bicameral Two houses in legislative body.
Unicameral One house in legislative body.
Abigail Adams Wife of John Adams, attempted to get rights for women to participate in Revolution.
Declaration of Independence Formally approved by congress on July 4, 1776. Formal separation from British rule. Inspiration to revolutionary movement against arbitrary authority.
Great Compromise Agreement between small & large states, defined legislative structure and representation.
Loyalist Colonists loyal to the king; Tories
Commander of French troops Rochambeau
Treaty of Ft. Stanwix 1st treaty between American and Indians, forced Indians to cede most of their land.
Federalists Supported Constitution, believed in strong federal government
Anti-Federalist Feared constitution, believed it took away rights and wanted strong state government.
Battles in Chronological Order Battle of Lexington & Concord-1775 Battle of Bunker Hill-1775 Battle of Trenton--1776 Battle of Brandywine--77 Battle of Germantown--77 Battle of Saratoga--77 Battle of Monmouth--78 Battle of Kings Mountain--81
Constitution Establish rights and liberties of American people. 3 branches of government with system of checks and balances. Distribution of power between Fed. Government and states.
Second Continental Congress May 10, 1775; No well defined sentiment for independence, hope King and Parliament would consent to grievances. Raise $ to create Army and Navy. British and Americans on brink of warfare.
Shay's Rebellion 1786, Rebellion of debtor farmers (rev. war veterans), lead by Daniel Shays against Boston Creditors, demanded paper money.
Patrick Henry Give me liberty or give me death; development of Bill of Rights
Thomas Paine common sense, radical idea that colonies should set up independent republic from England.
James Madison Father of Constitution
Thomas Jefferson House of Burgesses, Dec. of Ind., ambassador to France
John Jay Negotiate Treaty of Paris w/ Great Britain--ending Revolution
Land Ordinance of 1785 Old N.W land should be sold and proceeds used to pay off national debt. Dividing townships six miles square, then into 36 sections.
Patriots young footloose American rebels, Whigs
Yorktown Cornwallis; await seaborne supplies and reinforcement, surrendered entire force on Oct. 19, 1781
Slavery Issues No states s. of Penn. abolished slavery, harsh discrimination against freed, laws against interracial marriage.
NJ Plan Equal representation regardless of size. Small state plan
VA Plan Representation based on population. Large state plan.
Nathanael Greene Cleared S. Carolina and GA of British troops. Retreating and chasing tactic.
The Federalist Essays commenting on Constitution; Hamilton, John Jay, Madison.
Body that chose Washington commander of Continental Army. Continental Congress
British colony that Americans invaded in 1775 w/ hopes of adding to the rebellious 13. Canada
Pamphlet that demanded independence. Common Sense
Henry Lee's official resolution passed by Congress on July 2, 1776
1 of Washington's most brilliant military victories, surprised British and Hessians day after Xmas, 1776 Battle of Trenton
Penn. Valley where Washington's army starved and froze in winter of 1777-78 Valley Forge
River Valley that was focus of Britain's early military strategy, Burgoynes surrender. Hudson Valley
Self-denying document drafted by Congress in 1776, guide American diplomacy to only commercial relations. Model Treaty
Legalized pirates, more than a thousand strong, inflicted heavy damage on British shipping. Privateers
Key American fort on the Hudson River, Benedict Arnold attempted to hand over to the British. West Point
Idea that American women had special responsibility to cultivate civic virtue Republican Motherhood
Assembly for drawing up fundamental law that was superior to ordinary law. Constitutional Convention
1st Constitutional gov. of US Articles of Confederation
Failed revolt in 1786 by poor debtor farmers that raised fears of mobocracy. Shays Rebellion
Compromise between N and S that resulted in slaves being counted at 60% of a free person. 3/5 compromise
Created by: lbielinski