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Government Test

Mrs.Phillips PreAP

popular sovereignty a gov't in which the people rule; the people govern themselves; example. voting for president
republicanism the belief that people excersise their power by voting for political representatives; ex 1. voting for senators; ex 2. house of burgesses
federalsim the system of gov't in which power is divided between a central gov't and states; ex 1. states can raise and support a militia; ex 2. the US gov't can declare war
separation of powers no 1 branch has all of the power of the gov't; ex 1. executive branch catrries out the laws; ex 2. judicial interprets the laws; ex 3. legislative makes the laws
checks and balances a way to check each branch and make sure that no one branch has complete power in other words, the power is evenly distributed; ex 1. president ca veto laws; ex 2. judicial review; ex 3. president may be impeached
limited government official in gov't arent allowed to abuse their powers; ex. kevin brady was fined for drinking and driving even though he was the woodland's representative
individual rights every person has liberties and privlages that must be protected and not denied by the gov't; ex 1. right to go on strike; ex 2. john peter zenger established freedom of press; ex 3. writs of assistance violated this principle
qualifications for becoming president must be a natural born citizen; at least 35 yrs old; lived in US for 14 yrs
legislative branch makes laws; made up of the house of reps and the senate
executive branch carries out the laws; main officers- president and vp; 4 yr terms; may be reelected once; includes the cabinet;
judicial branch interprets the laws; 9 members of supreme court; term- for life;article 3; meet in the supreme court in washington DC; headed by-cheif justice; has the power of judicial review
senators people elected to the senate; 2 from each state; 100 total
representatives people elected to the house or representatives; 435; members based on population
supreme court justices members of the supreme court; 9 supreme court justices
delegated powers powers given to the federal (national) gov't
reserved powers` powers given to the state gov't
concurrent powers powers shared between the state and federal governments
copyright the exclusive legal right of an author, musician, software producer, etc. to publish and sell his own works
bicameral consisting of 2 houses, branches, chambers, or legislative bodies such as the us legislative branch
amendment a correction or addition the the constitution
writ of habeus corpus holding a person in jail indefinitely without making fomal charges against the person
naturalization the process of becoming an american citizen
civic virtue a willingness to contribute to the country
electoral college The group of delegates elected by the people from each state who cast the official votes that elect the President and the Vice President
impeach When a gov official has broken the law, that gov official will be sent to a series of trials known as impeachment in order to see if that government official will be impeached from office. To be impeached from office means to be taken out of office.
cabinet The Cabinet includes the VP and the heads of 15 executive departments
bill of rights first 10 amendments added to the constitution because the antifederalists wanted the rights of the people to be protected
state of the union address the speach by the president to the leislative annualy in which he shares current status
due process protects against state violations of individual rights
inauguration a ceremony in which the president takes the oath of office and assumes his position
ex post facto law a law which applies to an action that took place before the law was passed
bill of attainder a law which sentences a particular person to jail without granting the person a trial
interstate commerce not within the states
intrastate commerce within the state
suffrage right to vote
enumerated powers certain limitations are put on the federal gov
pardon exempt from penalty of accusation
commander in cheif president
virginia plan the Virginia Plan proposed a bicameral legislature, with both houses to be apportioned by population. Virginia and the other large states argued that this made sense since they would be paying a larger share of the taxes
new jersey plan plan which stated each state would be given one vote in Congress, to preserve the principle of state equality.
great compromise The Great Compromise combined two plans creating our current legislature with two houses, one based on population and elected by the people and the other house allowing two senators per state being appointed by state legislatures.
3/5 compromise constitutional convention's agreement to count 3/5 of a state's slaves as population for purposes of representation and taxation
election compromise members of electoral college will cast the official votes for president; the vote of the average citizen will be used to determine who the members of the electoral college are
trade compromise federal gov will regulate trade between foreign countries; imporst can be taxed but not exports; congress can make no slave restriction rules for 20 yrs
henry david thoreau introduced civil disobediance; refused to pay taxes because he opposed the mexican war
constitutional convention a meeting held in 1787 to consider changes to the articles of confederation; resulted in drafting of the constitution (P213)
first amendment The First amendment lists the people personal freedoms It guarantees freedom of speech, freedom of religion, freedom of the press and freedom of assembly
fifth amendment a person can be tried for a serious federal crime only if he or she has been indicted by a grand jury. No one may be subjected to double jeopardy. All persons are protected against self-incrimination;no person can be legally compelled to answer any questi
state of the union address an annual message to Congress in which the President reports on the state of the nation and outlines a legislative program: required by the Constitution (Article II, Section 3)
2nd amendment right to bear arms
3rd amendment Quartering of Soldiers is forbiden without a court ruling
4th amendment Deals with unreasonable searches and seizures
6th amendment right to be tried at location of crime
7th amendment right to jury trial
8th amendment Protections against Excessive Bail, Cruel and Unusual Punishment
9th amendment rights not mentioned are still given to the people
10th amendment rights reserved for states
13 amendment Abolition of Slavery and Involuntary Servitude
14 amendment due process applies to the states; equal protection of the laws; the rules and rights must be the same for everyone
15 amendment intended to grant voting rights to former slaves and provided that all men can vote regardless of race or color
19 amendment women's right to vote
20 amendment Commencement of Presidential Term and Succession
22 amendment Two-Term Limitation on President
23 amendment District of Columbia Presidential Vote
24 amendment Abolition of Poll Tax Requirement in Federal Elections
25 amendment Presidential Vacancy, Disability and Inability
26 amendment Right to Vote at Age 18
27 amendment written by james madison in 1788; raises for congressmen cannot go into effect intil after the next election
number of terms a president can have and why 2 terms; so that a president doesnt gain the power of a king
judicial review the judicial branch's power to rule a law unconstitutional
marbury vs. madison established judicial review
supremacy clause a clause in Article VI of the U.S. Constitution that declares the constitution, laws, and treaties of the federal government to be the supreme law of the land to which judges in every state are bound regardless of state law
civil disobediance a group or person's refusal to obey a law because they believe the law is immoral
father of the constitution james madison; took detailed notes of the constitutional convention; contributed many ideas to the making of the constitution
only president to leave office early richard nixon
president of the constitutional convention george washington
patent a document granting an inventor exclusive rights to produce and sell an invention for a set # of yrs
elastic clause phrase in the constitution that stretches the federal government's power by allowing congress to pass laws that are "necessary and proper" for carying out its stated powers. These "new" powers are called implied powers
Created by: is2903