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# Physics

### MCAT Study Cards

Term | Definition |
---|---|

translational motion displacement | x0 + v0t + 1/2at^2 |

translational motion velocity (w/0 time) | (v0)^2 +2ax |

translational motion velocity (w/o displacement) | v0 +at |

max frictional force | uN where N is the normal force |

force of uniform circular motion | ma = mv^2 /r |

acceleration of uniform circular motion | v^2 /r |

Kinematics, work | Fdcos(theta) |

Kinematics, power | (Wf - Wi)/ (tf - ti) |

Mechanical Energy | KE + PE |

weight | mg |

force of gravity and inclined plane | mgsin(theta) |

momentum | p = mv |

Potential Energy | -W = mgh |

Which is greater: static or kinetic friction? | static friction is always greater |

is gravity a conservative force? | yes |

is friction a conservative force? | no |

Spring, force | -kx |

Spring, work | kx^2 /2 |

Newton units | kgm/s^2 |

Joules units | kgm^2 /s^2 |

Hertz units | s^-1 |

Ohm units | W/A^2 |

Watt units | J/s |

Volt units | W/A |

Resistors in series | R1 + R2 + .... |

Resistors in parallel | R1*R2*..../R1 + R2 + .... |

Torque | rFsin(theta) = rmgsin(theta) |

Current, I | Q/t |

Continuity of fluids | A1*v1 = A2 * v2 |

Thermodynamics, heat | mc(Tf - Ti) |

Snell's Law | n1*sin(theta1) = n2*sin(theta2) |

Index of refraction | c/speed of light in medium |

What is the angle of incidence equivalent to? | angle of reflection |

Voltage | = IR, remember V, I, R triangle |

Pressure | Force/Area |

Force of buoyancy | Vpg = mg, where p is density |

Speed | sqrt(2gh) |

Optics, Power | 1/i + 1/o = 1/f |

Optics, o | object distance from mirror |

Optics, i | image distance from mirror |

Optics, f | focal length mirror |

focal length positive when? | converging lens or concave mirror |

focal length negative when? | diverging lens or convex mirror |

Gibbs free energy biochemistry | change H - T(change in S) |

Gibbs free energy general chemistry | -RTln(Keq) |

Capacitors in series | 1/C1 + 1/C2 +.... |

Capacitors in parallel | C1 + C2 + .... |

Bernoulli's equation fluids | P + rho(gh) + 1/2(rho)v^2 |

pendulum, frequency | 1/2pi *sqrt(g/L) or ~sqrt(k/m) |

pendulum, period | 2pi * sqrt(L/g) |

Doppler Effect | f' = fs(v +/- vo)/(v +/- vs) where vs is the velocity of source vo is velocity of the observer fs is real frequency f' apparent frequency |

Positive charges move to regions of? | lower potential |

Negative charges move to regions of? | higher potential |

Energy of photon emitted or absorbed | abs(13.6eV*[(1/nf^2) - (1/ni^2)] = hf |

Heisenberg Uncertainty principle | deltax*deltap > h/2pi |

Kirchoff's Law for Current (I) | Sum of I = 0 at a junction |

Kirchoff's Law for Voltage | Sum of V = 0 at a loop |

Energy btwn two parallel plates | V/d |

Force of an electrostatics | F=kq1*q2/r^2 |

Force of a magnetic field | abs(q)vBsin(theta) |

First Law of Thermodynamics | Uf-Ui = Q-W |

adiabatic process | Q=0, no heat exchanged, E=-W |

isochoric process | W=0, no volume exchanged |

isothermal process | Q=W |

Capacitance | epsilon(A/d) where epsilon = 1.0x10^-12 |

Energy stored by capacitor | 1/2(CV)^2 |

total momentum | p1 + p2 + ... = pf |

Work | Fdcos(theta) |

Hydrostatic pressure | P = density(gravity)(height) |

Boltzmann's constant | Energy of an individual particle level with temperature. k=R/Na where R is the ideal gas constant, and N is avogadro's constant |

sin(0) | 0 |

sin(30) | 1/2 |

sin(45) | 1/sqrt(2) or .70 |

sin(60) | sqrt(3)/2 or .85 |

sin(90) | 1 |

cos(0) | 1 |

cos(30) | sqrt(3)/2 or .85 |

cos(45) | 1/sqrt(2) or .70 |

cos(60) | 1/2 |

cos(90) | 0 |

ideal gas law assumption | namely, that gas molecules have negligible volume and that intermolecular interactions are negligible |

real gases differ from ideal gases at | high pressure and low temperature |

resistivity | p=RA/l R is the total resistance A is the cross sectional area l is the length of the material |

metallic conduction | involves the flow of electrons, decreases with increases in temperature, there is no transfer of matter |

electrolytic conduction | involves the flow of ions, involves a chemical reaction, increases with increasing temperature, there is a transfer of matter |

Snell's Law | n1 sin θ1 = n2 sin θ2 |

Dielectrics | nonconducting material placed between two capacitors. ALWAYS increases capacitance. C=kC, where k>1 |

Diffraction | dsinθ = mλ |

Resistivity proportionality | Amplitude^2 Temperature directly proportional |

Archimedes principle of density | Wair/(Wair-Wwater) |

Electric field lines | proceed from positive to negative regions |

Real images | always inverted |

Virtual images | always upright |

Poiseuille Flow Resistance to Flow | R=8nL/(p*r^4) |

Poiseuille Flow Volume Flow rate | pi*(change P)(r^4)/8nL |

Boyle's Law | PV= constant |

Charles' Law | V/T = constant |

Avogadro's Law | V/n = constant |

Power | W/t |

Pascal's Law | F/A = constant |

surface tension | due to attraction of molecules in the solvent |

Electric field lines | out of positive charges, into negative charges |