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Standard 4

Ideological, military, & diplomatic aspects of the American Revolution

Declaration of Independence Writers Thomas Jefferson (primary author), John Adams, Robert Livingston, Benjamin Franklin, Roger Sherman
Inspiration for Declaration of Independence Based on John Locke's Second Treatise on Government; included ideas such as "natural rights," equality of all men, role of people in establishing government
1st part of Declaration of Independence Preamble: Ideological reasons for breaking free of Britain (natural rights, origin/purpose of government)
2nd part of Declaration of Independence List of grievances (specific reasons why the colonies disagreed with King George III and the British government)
3rd part of Declaration of Independence Outlines strategies Americans have already used to create a better relationship with Britain; concludes that independence is the only solution they have left
Franco-American Treaty of 1778 Alliance negotiated by Benjamin Franklin & Thomas Jefferson; France helped the Americans turn the tide of war and eventually defeat Britain
Marquis de Lafayette French military leader who aided the Americans and helped convince the French government to increase their support of the Americans
Militias State "armies." Militia men often had to provide their own weapons/uniforms, had poor training, and were unreliable in battle
Continental Army George Washington convinced Congress to create this standing army. Low pay, little rations/supplies, disease was common.
Washington as Commander in Chief Led Continental Army; reorganized army, increased equipment and supplies, began training program; not the most successful commander, but was very well-liked and raised the morale of American soldiers
Crossing of the Delaware December 25, 1776: Washington defeated Hessian (German) soldiers in a surprise attack in Trenton, NJ, then defeated British forces; these victories boosted the American's morale
Valley Forge The area in Pennsylvania where the Continental Army stayed in the winter of 1777-1778. European soldiers, including Baron von Steuben and the Marquis de Lafayette arrived to train American soldiers & create a stronger army
Charles Cornwallis British General who attempted to cut off America's southern states from the army in the north. He was unsuccessful and camped at Yorktown, Virginia to wait for reinforcements. He was the British general who surrendered to the Americans/French
Battle of Yorktown Final battle of American Revolution. British General Cornwallis' army was surrounded by American & French forces, and the French fleet succeeded in driving off the British fleet. Cornwallis surrendered, and the American Revolution came to an end.
1783 Treaty of Paris Treaty which ended American Revolutionary War. Terms: 1. US won independence & control of land east of the Mississippi River; 2. Britain ceded (gave) Florida to Spain; 3. Britain ceded some African and Caribbean colonies to France
Created by: rbisacky