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SOC GRPS TST 2019

Mr. Stickler's Liberty Christian Sociology "Groups" Unit Test Flashcards 2019

QuestionAnswer
What is "McDonaldization" and why is it dominating our society? We model many aspects of our lives after McDonald's. The company's organizational principles are coming to dominate our entire society. Dominating because everything happens in a quick way.
What is predictability the result of? A highly rational system that specifies every course of action and leaves nothing to chance.
What is "calculability"? Something being standardized/ an exact plan.
What did Max Weber observe (relative to groups)? The expansion of formal organizations with alarm fearing they would "cage" imagination and crush the human spirit.
What is the most unreliable element in the McDonald's system? People.
What is efficiency? Anything done quickly.
What are the 4 principles of McDonaldization? 1. Efficiency; 2. Calcuability; 3. Uniformity & Predictability; 4. Control Through Automation.
What is a "Social Group"? Two or more people who identify and interact with one another.
What is the difference between "primary" and "secondary" groups? Primary groups are small and have members who share personal and enduring relationships; secondary groups are larger and more impersonal - members have little personal knowledge of each other.
What are the two (2) leadership roles and what does each of them emphasize? 1. Instrumental Leadership = Group leadership that emphasizes the completion of tasks. 2. Expressive Leadership = Group leadership that focuses on collective well - being.
What are the three (3) leadership styles we talked about in class? Authoritarian, Democratic, and Laisse-faire leadership styles.
Which of the three leadership styles is the "most appreciated in a crises"? Authoritarian leadership.
Which of the three (3) leadership styles "makes a point of including everyone in the decision - making process"? Democratic leadership.
Which of the three (3) leadership styles "allows the group to largely function on its own"? Laissez-faire leadership.
What was the goal of Stanley Milgrim's research? To test the effect of having an authority figure present on conformity.
What was the goal of Asch's Line Study? To test the effect of peer pressure on group conformity levels.
What is a "reference group"? This is a social group that serves as a point of reference in making evaluations and decision.
What is the difference between a "dyad" and a "triad"? A "dyad" is a social group with 2 members, while a "triad" is a social group with 3 members.
What are the four (4) ways that race, class, & gender effect group dynamics? 1. Large groups turn inward; 2. Heterogenous groups turn outward; 3. Social equality promotes contact; 4. Physical boundaries create social boundaries.
What are "Formal Organizations"? These are large secondary groups that are organized to achieve their goals efficiently.
What are the three (3) types of Formal Organizations? 1. Utilitarian Organizations; 2. Normative Organizations; 3. Coercive Organizations.
Which type of Formal Organization "pays people for their efforts"? Utilitarian Organizations.
Which type of Formal Organization "helps people pursue a goal"? Normative Organizations.
Which type of Formal Organization has members that are forced to join them? Coercive Organizations.
What is a "bureaucracy"? An organizational model rationally designed to perform tasks efficiently.
What were the two (2) limitations of early organizations? 1. They lacked the technology to communicate quickly or travel long distances; 2. Organizational goals were to preserve cultural systems, not to change them.
What are the six (6) specific traits that Max Weber identified as key elements of an ideal bureaucracy? 1. Specialization; 2. Hierarchy of offices; 3. Rules & Regulations; 4. Technical Competence; 5. Impersonality; 6. Formal, written communications.
What does the term "oligarchy" refer to? This term refers to "the rule of the many by the few".
What do some researchers argue about the management skills of women? That women's management skills strengthen an organization.
What does the term "secondary group" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a large, specialized group in which members engage in impersonal, goal - oriented relationships for a limited period of time."
What does the term "primary group" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a small, less specialized group in which members engage in face-to-face, emotion - based interactions over an extended period of time".
What does the term "reference group" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a group that strongly influences a person's behavior and social attitudes, regardless of whether that individual is an actual member".
What does the term "aggregate" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a collection of people who happen to be in the same place at the same time but share little else in common".
What does the term "network" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "a web of social relationships that links one person with other people, and, through them, with other people they know.
What does the term "conformity" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the process of maintaining or changing behavior to comply with the norms established by a society, subculture, or other group".
What does the term "ideal type" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "an abstract model that describes the recurring characteristics of some phenomenon (such as a bureaucracy)".
What is one (1) example of a "normative organization"? The NAACP is an example of this type of organization.
What is one (1) example of a "utilitarian organization"? Colleges and universities are examples of this type of organization.
What does the term "rationality" mean/ refer to? This term refers to "the process by which traditional methods of social organization, characterized by informality & spontaneity, are gradually replaced by efficiently administered formal rules & procedures".
Who came up with the term "McDonaldization"? Sociologist George Ritzer came up with this term.
Created by: sticklerpjpII
 

 



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