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Path 2 Bone Disorder

Doc. T

QuestionAnswer
Bone vs Cartilage vascularity Cartilage avascular-diffusion
Disc & nucleus polposis make up Disc=fibrocartilage&sm amount of ground sub. Nuc Polposis=ground substance-loves water
Which type of cell synthesizes the Organic bone matrix (osteoid) osteoblasts
Which type of cell synthesizes the intial template of long and irregular bones that is replaced chondroblasts, cartilage forming cells
Collagen forming cells fibroblasts
Volkmann's canals are oriented transversely
haversian systems (osteons) are oriented horizontally
Mature long bones marrow is mostly fat, not making blood cells
Active bone marrow is found in the epiphyses, irregular bones, flat bones (where RBCs are being made)
Osteoclasts resorb_______ because _______, _________ bone to remodel and calcium
Which hormone Increases osteoclast activity thus decrease Blood Calcium calcitonin
PTH _____osteoclast activity, ___ blood calcium increase, increase
It is important to build bone mass before age___ 40
Osteoid(organic bone matrix) constitutes ___% of bone of which 90% is type __ ________ type 1 collagen
The remaining 65% of bone is ______, composed of _____________ inorganic mineral, Calcium, Hydroxyapatite Crystals
__% of the body's calcium is in bone? 99%
Collagen is a fat?protein?carb? Protein
PTH manages _____ _____ in the blood calcium levels
Parathyroid gland exhibits a _____________ on their surface Calcium sensor
When is the Calcium sensor INACTIVE? when blood calcium levels are LOW -PTH is not inhibited
PTH activates _______, increases ___________ of calcium, stimulates __________ osteoclasts, kidne reabsorption of calcium, activation of Vit. D3
Vitamin D3 enhances gut absorption of Calcium
if you skipped lunch and calcium is low, PTH is secreted and increases osteoclasts activity and kidney conserves ca2+ & activate Vit D3
Calcium's job is to activate enzymes
syndactyly definition fused digits-soft tissues or bones
polydactyly definition more digits
brachydactyly definition short digits
Achondroplasia definition bones could have stopped growing (dwarfisim), Fibroblast growth factor R mutation, carried by father
Mutations in a signal molecule or matrix constituents dysplasias
Bone mass hyper activation osteopetrosis
Bone mass inactivation of LRP-5 osteoporosis
In achondroplasias, what is not affected skull because it grown intramembranously
Osetogenesis imperfecta is abnormality of type 1 collagen synthesis
Weak bones prone to fracture an deformity osteogenesis imperfecta
Autosomal dominant defective PROTOcollagen strands Osteogenesis imperfecta
Albers-Schonberg disease is = Osteopetrosis, marble bone disease
Osteopetrosis is a defect in which cell function osteoclast, decrease bone resorption, decrease carbonic anhydrase
T or F, in osteopetrosis bones are brittle and fracture easily True! No remodeling to lamellar bone (stupid bone)
Crainial nerve pulsey , anemia (decrease marrow sp) osteopetrosis
Most severe form of osteopetrosis infantile malignant osteopetrosis
Osteomalacia is inadequate availability of Vit D
Some causes of secondary osteoporosis long term use of Corticosteroid (asthma, COPD, inflammation,RA, Ulcer Colitis, chron's) hyperParathyroidism…
decreased quantity of matrix osteoporosis
Osteoporosis Vs Osteomalacia problem with bone: quantity vs quality
Osteoporosis is an imblance btw osteoblast and osteoclasts
Failure to achieve maximal peak of bone mass in the _____________ results in a tendency to osteoporosis later in life mid to late 20s!
in osteoporosis, which is most affected cancellous or cortical bone cancellous bone is more affected
Cancer of the plasma cells (bone marrow cancer) multiple myeloma (causes osteoporosis)
Where is multiple myeloma seen skull and illium
B lymphocytes make plasma cells which make antibodies
Decreases bone resoption by osteoclasts calcitonin
Vitamin D3 levels should be 31 (better 80-100)
How to prepare for succesful aging? calcium, vitamin D3, Magnesium, reduce carbonated beverages*, Weight bearing exercise, Estrogen treatments
Osteomalacia in children rickets
defective mineralization of the osteoid bone matrix , poorly mineralized matrix Osteomalacia/rickets
Deficiency in D3 or Sun can result in Osteomalacia/rickets
Wide epiphyseal plates and rachitic rosary is seen in Rickets?
Rugger jersey, prominent subendplate densistis is due to what? Is seen in ? rOsteoblastic activity "reflex", hyperparathyroidism
In HyperParaThyroidism, which is most affected cancellous or cortical bone Cortical bone more affected-->cortical thinning and Osteopaenia
In HyperParaThyroidism, as the bone Thins, hemorrhages occur, macrophages infiltrate What can be Seen? Brown Tumors
Rugger jersey, Brown tumor are associated with HyperParathyroidism
Osteitis deformans is also known as pagets disease
Pagets Disease cause unknown, osteocalst function problem
Three stages of Pagets disease osteolytic, mixed, osteosclerotic stage
1st stage osteolytic : increased osteoclastic activity
2nd stage Mixed: mixed osteoclast-blast activity and END w/ mostly Osteoblastic
3rd stage Osetoscerortic stage: "Burned out". No cellular activity thus Abnormal lamellar bone "mosaic bone"
"Mosaic" bone in Pagets, is structurally weak and prone to fracture
Which conditions have nerve entrapments Osteopetrosis and Pagets
Hyperostosis in Pagets is nerve entrapment, tibial bowing, skull enlargment, facial bone coarsening
Leontiasis ossea, seen in pagets, is facial bone coarsening
Pagets occurs in what ages older adults
T or F, in 85% of cases of pagets are monostotic (involve one bone) F, 85% polyostotic, 15% monostotic *MOST cases are mild and asymptomatic
What are the 3 stages of fracture healing? Inflammatory, Reparative, Remodeling
fracture healing, what occurs in the inflammatory stage Preparation of healing environment, Hemorrhage&necrotic tissue clean up, Differentiation of new osteoblasts&clasts…
In the inflammatory stage of fracture healing, which cell would prepare healing environment neutrophils
Where do the new osteoblast in the late inflammatory stage come from? The endosteum
What occurs in the reparatie stage of fracture healing? formation of cartilagenous template (endochondral growth) and then replaced with Woven bone
What occurs in the last stage (remodeling stage) Remodeling to LAMELLAR bone
What is required in order to achieve the remodeling stage of fractures weight bearing
Order of fracture healing: Hematoma---> cartilagenous templater-->__________-->_________ woven bone--> lamellar bone
AVN results in _____% of scaphoid fractures and involves the _______pole 15-30%, proximal pole
AVN of femoral head is legg-calve-perthese disease
Bilater AVN of femur heads can be seen in divers
Osteomyelitis vs osteomacia bacterial infection of bone
where does infection in osteomyelitis usually start in the bone marrow
the 3 ways that bacteria can reach bone hematogenous, direct extension, trauma
what is sequestrum piece of necrotic bone
what is an abscess in bone Occurs as a specific type of osteomyelitis may contain a sequestrum (brodie's abscess)
Brodie's abscess occurs in subacute osteomyelitis
What is an involucrum new bone and fibrous tissue that forms around a sequestrum
what is Garre's sclerosing osteomyelitis chronic osteomyelitis with excess new bone formation
what is a significant causative agent of osteomyelitis staphlococcus aureus, TB, Joint replacements, Sicklecell anemia
TB of the spine pott's disease
T or F, Most tumors of bone are Asymptomatic True, often incidental finding
Which type of Primary tumor is MC, Bening vs malignant Benign! Malignant most often seen in older pt
3 MC bone tumors osteogenic, chondrogenic, fibrogenic
Osteoid ostema and osteblastoma are what types of tumors osteogenic benign
enchondroma, chondroblastoma, osteochondroma are what type of tumors chondrogenic benign
Fibrous cortical defect is what type of tumor benign fibrogenic tumor
Created by: kfrancis