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CMS - 8th History

Key Terms in American History

QuestionAnswer
Abolitionist movement to end slavery.
Amend the process of changing the Constitution.
American System 1815 plan to make U.S. economically self-sufficient.
Anti-Federalist people who opposed ratification of the Constitution.
Appomattox Courthouse where the South finally surrendered during the Civil War.
Assimilation the process of blending into society.
Bacon’s Rebellion (1676) revolt against colonial authority.
Balance of power the distribution of power between the 3 branches of government.
Bank War (1829-1830) attack by President Jackson on national bank.
Battle of the Alamo (1836) battle between Texans and Mexican army.
Battle of Fallen Timbers (1794) conflict between Indian and colonist over control of the Northwest Territory.
Battle of Gettysburg (1863) ended the South’s hopes of winning a battle in the North.
Battles of Lexington and Concord (1775) first battles of the American Revoulution.
Battle of Yorktown (1781) last major campaign of the American Revolution.
Battles of Saratoga (1777) turning point of the American Revolution.
Bleeding Kansas conflict between pro-slavery and anti-slavery people in Kansas, 1854-1859
Blockade when goods are prevented from going into or out of an area
Boston Masssacre (1770) conflict between British and colonist
Boston Tea Part (1773) protest by colonist in which they dumped tea into Boston Harbor
Boycott a refusal to buy certain goods
California Gold Rush (1849) migration of people to the area after gold was discovered
Cash Crop a crop grown to be sold rather than used by the farmer
Charter a contract given to someone to establish a colony.
Checks and Balances each of three branches of government limits the power of the others
Columbian Exchange the movement of plants, goods, and diseases between the New World and Europe
Compromise of 1877 ended Reconstruction
Confederacy the southern states who seceded
Confederation Congress first U.S. government
Constituents the people who vote for a member of government
Constitutional Convention (1787) the meeting of people that agreed on the constitution
Continental Army military of the colonists
Continental Congress the group of leaders that governed the colonies during the Am. Rev.
Cotton Gin (1795) invention by Eli Whitney that made processing cotton much easier
Crittenden Plan (1861) plan that might have prevented secession
Cumberland Gap was the principal route through the Appalachian Mts.
Democratic-Republicans political party formed by Jefferson and Madison.
Doctrine of nullification ideas that states had the right to reject any law passed Congress.
Due process of law everyone is entitled to be treated equally by law.
Electoral college a group of voters chosen be each state to elect the President and Vic-Pres.
Embargo prevents ships from entering or leaving ports.
Erie Canal (1825) waterway connected Great Lakes to New York City.
Executive branch that President and his cabinet.
Factory system method of building goods that included many workers and machines working in one place.
Federalism a system of sharing power between tha states and the national government.
Foreign policy relations with governments of other countries.
Fort Sumter beginning of the Civil War.
Freedman’s Bureau federal agency set up to help former slaves in the south.
Free enterprise system an economic system that has few government restrictions.
Free-Soil Party political party formed in 1846 to stop the spread of slavery.
French and Indian War (1754-1763) world-wide war between France and England.
Fundamental Orders of Connecticut Puritan plan of government in Connecticut in 1639.
Great Awakening religious revival, 1730-1740.
Great Compromise agreement reached during the constitutional convention that created the American system of government.
Habeas Corpus no one can held by the government without cause.
Harpers Ferry (1859) slave revolt.
Impeachment the process of accusing a government official of wrongdoing.
6indentured servant someone who agreed to work for an employer in exchanger for passage to the New World.
Individual Rights a personal liberty guaranteed by the Bill of Rights.
Industrialization an economy begins to be based on factories instead of farming
Jacksonian Democracy the idea that as many people as possible should be able to vote.
Jamestown first permanent English settlement in the New World in 1607.
Judicial branch the supreme court.
Judicial Review the idea that the Supreme Court has the right to review all laws made by Congress.
King Philip’s War war between Puritans and Indians,1675-1676
Legislative Branch the House of Representatives and the Senate: the branch that makes the laws.
Lewis and Clark expedition group that explored the lands of the Louisiana purchase.
Limited Government everyone, even elected officials, must obey the laws.
Louisiana Purchase treaty with France in 1803 that allowed the U.S. to acquire vast extent of land.
Lowell Mills textile mills founded in 1826.
Loyalist someone loyal to England during the American Revolution.
Manifest Destiny idea that Americans had a right to all of the land between the east and west coasts.
Mayflower Compact (1620) agreement between Pilgrims to establish a government in the New World.
Melting Pot idea American culture is a blend of many different cultures.
Mercantilism economic system in which England controlled the trade of the countries.
Mexican session land in the Southwest given up by Mexico in 1848 after the Mexican War.
Mexican War war between U.S. and Mexico 1846-1848.
Middle passage journey of captured Africans to the New World to be sold as saleves.
Militia armed civilians who are supposed to defend their communities.
Mormons group of people who moved west to avoid religious persecution.
Neutral to not become allies with any country.
New Jersey Plan of government that the constitution convention considered.
Northwest Territory land that formed the states of Ohio, Indiana, Michigan, and Illinois
Oregon Trail trail from Missouri to Oregon.
Patriot someone who supported the American Revolution.
Pilgrims founded the Plymouth colony.
Plantation large farm that raises cash crops
Political Party group of people that supports a candidate running for a government position
Popular Sovereignty government in which the people have the power
Puritans settled the Massachusetts Bay Colony
Radical Republicans wanted to use the federal government to impose a new order on the South and wanted to grant citizenship rights to former slaves
Ratification the process of approving the Constitution
Reconstruction process of re-admitting southern states into the Union
Representative Government system if government in which officials are elected in order to represent the interests of the voters
Republicanism the idea that government should be based on the consent of the governed
Republican Party political party formed in 1854
Royal Colony a colony ruled by governors appointed by the king
Salutary Neglect english policy of not interfering in the colonies
Santa Fe Trail a trail from Missouri to New Mexico
Secession withdrawal of southern states from the Union
Second Great Awakening religious revival, 1790-1800
Sectionalism tension between North and South as each region placed their own interests above those of the country as a whole.
Seneca Falls Convention (1848) women’s rights meeting
Separation of Powers the division of government into three branches
Shays’ Rebellion (1787) uprising of farmers
Slave codes laws that regulated how slaves could be treated
Slavery a person was owned by another person in order to control their labor
Sons of Liberty secret society who opposed British polices
States’ Rights idea that the power of the states should not be trampled on by the national government
Stono Rebellion (1787) uprising of slaves
Suffrage the right to vote
Tariff/Tax fees charged on an economic activity
Tariff of Abominations (1828) tariff that made the Southerners angry
Temperance Movement people who thought that drinking alcohol was wrong
Texas Revolution (1836) Texas declared its dependence from Mexico
Three-Fifths Compromise agreement at the constitutional convention that allowed slaves to count a 3/5th of a white person
Total War Union strategy to attack not just enemy troops, but anything that helped the enemy: buildings, crops and rail lines
Trail of Tears enforced journey by Cherokee Indians in 1838-1839 from their lands in the east to the west
Transcendentalism philosophy that believed in the goodness of humans and which valued experience and intuition above reason and logic
Triangle Trade system of trade in which goods were exchanged between Europe, Africa, and the New World colonies
Unalienable Right right that the government cannot take away
Unconstitutional law that is forbidden by the Constitution
Underground Railroad series of escape routes for run away slaves
Urbanization growth of cities
Virginia House of Burgesses (1619) first representative government in the colonies
Virginia Plan plan of government that the constitutional convention considered
Wart of 1812 (18012-1815) conflict between England and U.S.
Whig Party political party formed in 1834
Whiskey Rebellion (1794) protest by farmers
Wilmot Proviso (1846) proposal that would have banned slavery in any territory acquired from Mexico
Women’s Right’s Movement people who taught that the women should have the same rights as men
XYZ Affair (1797) incident in which French officials demanded a bribe from U.S. diplomats
Created by: phsv