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Qtr Final Review

Other concepts

Cash crop A crop that is raised primarily for sale
Mercantilism – The belief that a nation could increase its wealth and power by obtaining as much gold and silver as possible and by establishing a favorable balance of trade
Land Ownership (American Indians) It is not possible to own land, it is for everyone
Enlightenment Thinking that stressed the use of reason, the importance of the individual and scientific method
Columbian Exchange The exchange of goods between the Americas and Europe and Africa
Federalism Divides power between national and state governments
Checks and Balances separation of powers so that the government would not become centered on one branch.
Abolitionism movement against slavery
Spoils system (Andrew Jackson) 1. Jackson - political power for all classes. 2. Gives government jobs to supporters
Economy of North 1. Industrial Revolution begins in Britain and spreads to US. 2. Textile Mills in New England. 3. Market Economy
Economy of South 1. Cotton gin makes agriculture more profitable. 2. Increases demand for labor and slaves
Civil War—military technologies repeating weapons, pistol & rifle, cannons, iron & steele technology, formation (low to ground and behind cover)
Sharecropping Many freedmen and poor whites went to work on the large plantations. These people rented and farmed a plot of land. Planters provided seed, fertilizer, and tools in return for a share of the crop at harvest time.
Role of buffalo Native Americans dependent (food, clothing, tools) on them white settlers and railroads decimated herds
Transcontinental railroad linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system. A railroad that stretches across a continent from coast to coast made it easier for mail and goods to be sent.
Assimilation Process of converting Native Americans into Euro-Americans through education, farming, religion, dress/appearance, language, and housing.
Ghost Dance Holy Man believed this dance would bring back the buffalo and return Native Americans to their land
Skyscrapers able to be built after Henry Bessemer invented process to cheaply turn iron into steel
Vertical integration Carnegie used this to control costs and therefor increase profits-- he acquired companies that provided materials and services upon which his enterprises depended
Social Darwinism theory that sought to apply the biological principles of natural selection and evolution to society
Collective bargaining negotiations between labor unions (workers) and management for better working conditions/pay/hours
Bessemer process a converter to blast air through iron and thus burning the excess carbon and impurities
Bimetallism A monetary system in which the government would give citizens either gold or silver in exchange for paper currency or checks
Horizontal integration when one company owns other companies involved in the same business.
American Federation of Labor labor union that organized skilled workers in specific trades and made small demands rather than seeking broad changes
Angel Island Immigrant processing station in San Francisco (West Coast) built in 1910 to enforce Asian exclusion laws. Longer processing times and very racist against immigrants from Japan, China, India and Korea
Ellis Island Main port of entry by immigrants, New York. About 2% of immigrants were denied entry.
Tammany Hall Building that housed Tweed ring which defrauds NYC of millions of dollars
Americanization social campaign sponsored by government and concerned citizens to assimilate people into main culture
Leisure activities Better technology allowed more time for Leisure activities. Cities offered Museums, Theatres and Libraries
Gentlemen’s Agreement Japanese government agrees to limit emigration in return US agrees not to stop immigration from Japan all together
Political machine Organized group that controls city political party
Tenement housing Multi –family urban dwellings. Unregulated in poor, industrial areas. They were overcrowded and unsanitary. No windows and rarely indoor toilets.
Popular U.S. History sets



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