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8 Religion and Refor

JAHKMLHS C8 Religion and Reform

TermDefinition
Charles Grandison Finney This man was a famous charismatic preacher in the Burned Over District and the "father of modern revivalism."
"The Burned-Over District" This term applied to the region along the Erie Canal and referred to the religious fervor of its inhabitants who were susceptible to revivalist and tent rallies by the pentecostals.
Henry David Thoreau This man wrote in “Civil Disobedience” “that government is best which governs least.”
Second Great Awakening This was a wave of religious fervor and revivalism that swept the United States from the early nineteenth century through the Civil War.
Reform Era This was a time period in American history during which Americans attempted to reshape American society, possibly inspired by the Second ‘Great Awakening
temperance movement This was an attempt to “moderate” or reduce the use of hard liquor in society.
Ralph Waldo Emerson This man, the best known of the transcendentalists, was a poet and essayist, who espoused a philosophy, which emphasized self reliance and intuition.
utopian movement This movement sought to develop communities free of social ills.
Ann Lee In 1770 in England this woman had a revelation that she was the female part of the dual Father-Mother God.
Amana Community This utopian society began in New York and eventually settled in Iowa. All property was held in common. Families were assigned housing in buildings owned by the Society.
Brigham Young This man organized and led the Mormon exodus from Illinois to the Great Salt Lake.
Joseph Smith This man had a vision of golden plates that he found (??) and translated into the Book of Mormon. He was murdered in Illinois in 1844.
revivalists This name was given to people who wanted to reenergize the role of religion in America.
Mormon This religious group isolated themselves within their own communities and voted as a group. Eventually, they migrated from Nauvoo to their present home in Utah.
Shakers This sect believed that since the world was about to end continuance of the human race was unnecessary. Men and women lived in separate dormitories and ate apart in dining halls where silence was maintained.
transcendentalist movement This movement stressed that knowledge is gained not only by observation but also by intuition, reason, and personal spiritual experiences.
William Miller This man, the founder of Seventy Day Adventism, calculated that the world would end in 1844; however, his calculations were wrong.
Lyceum Movement This movement developed in the 1800's in response to growing interest in higher education and was directly responsible for the increase in the number of institutions of higher learning.
William H. McGuffey This man developed a series of textbooks for different grade levels. The texts taught reading, as well as moral and intellectual values.
Oberlin, 1833 This institution of higher learning was founded by a New England Congregationalist in Ohio. The institution was the first coed facility at the college level and the first to enroll Blacks in 1835
American Temperance Union This organization was co-founded by Lyman Beecher and urged drinkers to give up alcohol.
“Ten Nights in a Barroom” This melodramatic story, published in 1856, became a favorite text for temperance lecturers.
Dorothea Dix This reformer was a pioneer in the movement to treat the insane as mentally ill
Mt. Holyoke, 1836 This institution of higher learning was founded in 1837 in South Hadley, Massachusetts and became the model for later liberal arts institutions of higher education for women. Liberal colleges.
Noah Webster This man learned 26 languages in order to research the origins of his own country’s tongue.
Horace Mann This man advocated mandatory school attendance. He became the first secretary of education in Massachusetts.
Dorothea Dix This woman petitioned the Massachusetts legislature to correct the terrible conditions in prisons.
Dow Law This piece of legislation was the first of its kind when passed in Maine in 1851 making Maine the first “dry” state in the United States.
penitentiary movement This reform movement was led by people who believed that prisons should make criminals feel sorrow for their crimes.
Elizabeth Blackwell This woman was America’s first female physician.
Dorothea Dix This woman’s crusade to reform the prison system began when she taught a Sunday School class in 1841.
Emma Willard This woman established a college preparatory school for girls called Troy Female Seminary.
Catharine Beecher This woman, whose father was a preacher in Boston and whose sister wrote an influential book Uncle Tom’s Cabin, helped establish schools for women.
Abolitionism This militant effort to do away with slavery had its roots in the North in the 1700s. It became a major issue in the 1830s and dominated politics after 1840.
Frederick Douglass This man escaped slavery to become a leader in the movement to end slavery and established a newspaper called the North Star.
freedman This term applied to former slaves who had been emancipated.
Wendell Phillips This man was known as "abolition’s golden trumpet." He was perhaps the most important abolitionist and had a major impact on politics during the Civil War for emancipation.
The Grimke sisters These women wrote and lectured vigorously on reform causes such as prison reform, the temperance movement, and the abolitionist movement. Ironically, they were from the South.
Gag resolution This rule stated that any document related “to the subject of slavery or the abolition of slavery, shall, without being either printed or referred, be laid on the table and … no further action whatever shall be had thereon."
Denmark Vesey This mulatto inspired a group of slaves to seize Charleston, South Carolina, in 1822, but one of them betrayed him and he and his thirty-seven followers were hanged before the revolt started.
Harriet Tubman This woman earned the nickname “Moses” as she rescued more than three hundred slaves.
Sojourner Truth This woman began life as a slave named Isabelle Baumfree and ended it as a celebrated anti-slavery activist. Although she could not read or write, she was a captivating speaker who spoke out for women's rights and against slavery.
David Walker This Boston free black man wrote an Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World in 1829 which advocated violence to end slavery.
Nat Turner This man led one of the bloodiest slave revolts in American history in 1831. In the rampage near Richmond nearly 60 people were killed.
Theodore Parker This leading transcendentalist radical became known as "the keeper of the public's conscience". His advocation for social reform often put him in physical danger, though his causes later became popular.
Underground Railroad This network consisted of safe houses and sympathizers that assisted escaping slaves.
Gabriel Prosser This slave planned a revolt to make Virginia a state for Blacks. He organized about 1,000 slaves who met outside Richmond the night of August 30, 1800.
William Lloyd Garrison This man published a militant antislavery newspaper, The Liberator.
Theodore Dwight Weld This man wrote American Slavery As It Is, which was among the most effective abolitionist works. He married Angelina Grimke.
Frederick Douglass This former slave became the most prominent of the black abolitionists. He published his autobiography Narrative of the Life of… which shared his experiences as a slave with many readers.
Elijah Lovejoy This militant editor of an antislavery newspaper in Illinois had his printing press destroyed four times was killed by a mob which promptly burned his warehouse.
Lucy Stone This woman, together with her husband, was the “rock” of which the weekly newspaper The Woman’s Journal was founded..
Elizabeth Blackwell This woman was America’s first female physician.
Grimke sisters These women had been raised in the South on a plantation, became Quakers, and joined the abolition movement.
Lucy Stone This woman married Henry Blackwell but kept her maiden name. She was also the first woman in Massachusetts to earn a college degree.
Catharine Beecher This writer and lecturer established two schools for women and emphasized better teacher training and was even associated with and helped establish a school in Milwaukee which became known as Downer College. She opposed women's suffrage.
Seneca Falls Convention This meeting declared “all men and women are created equal.”
Elizabeth Cady Stanton This woman drew up the “Declaration of Sentiments” which stated that “all men and women are created equal” and then went on to list 18 “injuries” that men had committed toward women.
Cult of domesticity This movement urged women to remain in the home.
Amelia Bloomer This woman became famous for her daring style of dress which involved Turkish pants and a short dress.
suffrage This term refers to the right to vote.
Married Women’s Property Act This law passed in New York in 1848 guaranteed many property rights for women.
Lucretia Mott This woman’s Philadelphia home was a station on the underground railroad, and she helped to organize the Seneca Falls Convention.
Seneca Falls Convention This meeting was the first women’s rights meeting in the United States.
Created by: jim.haferman