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PLT k-6


Classroom management research findings suggest that one of the most effective ways to maximize the amount of time elementary school children spend on academic activities is for the teacher to do ________. Plan for, teach, and enforce routines for transition times and classroom housekeeping tasks
kind of instruction that is frequently contrasted with discovery learning expository teaching
allows students to explore material on their own and arrive at conclusions discovery learning
best for a teacher to do when establishing classroom rules explain why the established rules are necessary for enhancing student cooperation
test score used to show a student's relative position among a group of students' relative position among a group of students in the same grade who are tested at the same time percentile rank
a systematic collection of materials selected to demonstrate a person's level of knowledge, skill, or ability in a particular area portfolio assessment
an explicit set of criteria used for assessing a particular type of work or performance that usually includes potential levels of achievement for each criterion rubric
an informal written record for tracking a child's social, emotional, physical, and cognitive development anecdotal notes
a tool used to gather info that can help teachers make sense of educational situations, gauge the effectiveness of educational practices, and plan for improvement observation
According to the Equal Access Act (20 USC Sec. 4071), which states a criterion under which a school would be deemed to offer a fair opportunity to students who wish to conduct meetings as limited open forums? the meetings must not interfere with the orderly conduct of education activities within the school
Three stages in the development of speech social - speech to control the behavior of others egocentric - 3 to 7 year olds talking to themselves to learn inner - soundless speech, thinking in your head
the discrepancy between a child's mental age (indicated by the static test) and the level he reaches in solving problems with assistance Zone of Proximal Development (ZPD)
* developed the ZPD * believed that social interactions with others influences cognitive development * importance of culture * higher and lower mental functions * central role of language Vygotsky
* Discovery and Inquiry learning * learners construct new ideas or concepts based upon their current/past knowledge * Spiral organization * Readiness * Going beyond given information Bruner
instruction must be concerned with the experiences and contexts that make the student willing and able to learn readiness
instruction must be structured so that it can be easily grasped by the student Spiral Organization
instruction should be designed to facilitate extrapolation and or fill in the gaps going beyond given info
* Education must engage with and enlarge experience * interaction and environments for learning * Passion for democracy, for education so that all may share in a common life * thinking and reflection * cooperative learning Dewey
Hierarchy of Needs: Physiological, safety, belonging, esteem, and self-actualization Maslow
* multiple intelligence Gardner
linguistic - word smart; logical/mathematical - number/reasoning smart spatial - picture smart bodily/kinesthetic - movement, musical - use music interpersonal - self reflection intrapersonal - social experience naturalistic - experience in natural world multiple intelligences
* Modeling Process: attention, retention, reproduction, motivation * Observation learning *Self-regulation: self-observation, judgment, self-response Bandura
*operant conditioning *reinforcement *behavior modificaiton Skinner
our reaction to the world operant conditioning
*Stages of Cognitive Development: sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational *schemas, assimilation, accomodation, adaptation Piaget
skills to explore the environment to gain knowledge schema
knowledge is constructed by the individual through his interactions with his environment constuctivism
phenomenon in which something that was previously learning facilitates (positive transfer) or hinders (negative transfer) current learning; transfer
influence of previously learned information on a new situations or tasks transfer
consists of three basic elements: 1) developing a plan of action 2) maintaining/monitoring the plan 3) evaluating the plan metacondition
learning how to learn metacondition
provides clear directions; clarifies purpose .keeps students on task; offers assessment to clarify expectations; reduces surprise, disappointment, and uncertainty; identifies the best sources to find information; delivers efficiency; creates momentum scaffolding
temporary learning aid designed to help the student grow in independence as a learner scaffolding
motivation to engage in an activity for its own sake intrinsic motivation
motivation to engage in an activity as a means to an end extrinsic motivation
appropriate time for learning readiness
1) evaluation 2) synthesis 3) analysis 4) application 5) understanding 6) knowledge Bloom's taxonomy
internal representation of the world; organization of concepts and actions that can be revised by new info about the world schemata
changes in the way an individual relates to others; Erikson, Vygotsky, Bandura social development
changes in ones personality and ability to control emotions; Maslow emotional development
selfish, to social or conventional morality, and finally to post conventional or principled morality; Kohlberg, Gilligan moral development
learning is an internal process that cannot be observed directly. the change occurs in a person's ability to respond in a particular situation; Piaget, Bruner, Ausubel cognitive development
Preconventional Stage 1: obedience and punishment Stage 2: individualism, incrementalism, and exchange Conventional Stage 3: "Good boy/girl" Stage 4: Law and order Postconventional Stage 5: social contract Stage 6: principled conscience Kohlberg's stages of moral development
1: oral-sensory (birth to 18 months), trust vs mistrust 2: Muscular-anal (18 months to 3 years), autonomy vs shame/doubt 3: Locomotor (3 to 6 years), initiative vs guilt, 4: latency (6 to 12 years), industry vs inferiority Erik Ericson's first 4 stages of psychological development
5: Adolescence (12 to 18 years) identity vs role confusion 6: Young Adulthood (19 to 40 years) Intimacy vs Isolation 7: (40 to 65) Generativity vs Stagnation 8: (65 to death) EgoIntegrity vs Despair Erik Erickson's last 4 stages of psychological development
Girls emphasize memorization - boys learn more by elaboration strategies Girls perform well in reading, but less in math - opposite for boys Girls express emotions with words - boys through actions what does research reveal about gender differences and how they might affect learning?
visual & hearing disorders (eyeglasses, hearing aids) .blind or low vision .deaf or hard-of-hearing visual and perceptual difficulties
medical conditions that affect strength and stamina; handicaps; disabilities; special physical or sensory challenges
a disorder in the ability to process info that can result in attention, perception, or memory deficits; despite adequate hearing, vision, and intelligence, learning disabled students experience difficulty in school learning learning difficulties
Attention Deficit Disorder and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: term used in psychiatric classification systems to describe individuals who show poor attention due to distractibility, hyperactivity, and impulsivity ADD/ADHD
significantly sub-average general intellectual functioning existing concurrently with deficits in adaptive behavior and manifested during the developmental period Functional mental retardation
Provide that no person shall, by any reason of disability be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination in any services, programs, or activities of an entity covered by the law Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
purpose is to ensure all children and youth with disabilities in the U.S. access to a free, appropriate public education Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)
inclusion of special students in the general educational process for any part of the school day Mainstreaming
most appropriate educational placement that is closest to the mainstream Least Restrictive Environment (LRE)
the placement (from part to full time) of students w/disabilities in gen ed classroom w/ special ed supports & services as necessary inclusion
a written educational plan that specifies a special students current performance, annual goals, and short-term instructional objectives; prepared by a team that included students' parent(s), teacher(s), and if appropriate the student. Individual Education Plan (IEP)
a sense that one is doomed to fail, based on past experiences learned helplessness
an individual's belief about or perception of personal competence in a given situation self-efficacy
type of learning in which voluntary behaviors are strengthened or weakened depending upon the consequences or antecedents operant conditioning
using consequences to strengthen behavior (negative or positive) reinforcement
anticipating potential problems and creating procedures to help prevent these situations prevention
behavior management method for developing an appropriate behavior in which the teacher rewards responses that are successively more similar to the ultimate desired response shaping successive approximations
strengthening of a behavior by the presentation of a desired stimulus or reward after the behavior positive reinforcement
strengthening of a behavior by the removal of an aversive stimulus negative reinforcement
gradual disappearance of a learned response extinction
schedule in which every correct response is reinforced continuous reinforcement
anything that weakens or suppresses behavior punishment
process whereby the learner considers a variety of possibilities, then chooses from those possibilities using unbiased, rational thinking critical thinking
teams of students work together to solve assigned problems using text provider by the teacher creative thinking
any thinking that goes beyond recall of basic facts higher-order thinking
teaching that follows the cycle used in scientific inquiry; Steps usually include: search literature, make observations, generate hypotheses, design and carry out experiments, then analysis of results and restarting the cycle inductive thinking
form of inquiry with four basic components: presentation of a generalization, discussion of core elements, student exploration, student generation of relevant examples deductive thinking
no direct instruction, teacher poses authentic problem, students learn particular content and skills as they work cooperatively to solve the problem Problem Structuring and Problem Solving
open-ended problem-solving task; process of creating something to fill a need invention
actively organizing and working with concepts or terminology to improve incorporating those concepts into memory memorization and recall
specific type of small group learning which has five essential elements: 1) positive interdependence 2) face-to-face interaction 3) individual accountability 4) structured activity 5) teamwork skills and group processing cooperative learning
teacher-centered instruction which includes lecture, presentation, and recitation direct instruction
constructionist approach; students begin learning with an activity designed to lead them to particular concepts or conclusions, students aquire basic and advanced knowledge in random order discover learning
practice done without intervention by the teacher independent study
traditional elementary and secondary classrooms divide instruction into categories (disciplines); teaching involves any effort on the part of an instuctor to design learning activities with products, and activities to relate to more than one discipline interdisciplinary instruction
any of several forms of graphical organizers which allow learners to perceive relationships between concepts through diagramming keywords representing those concepts concept mapping
system in which students solve problems or answer questions by forming tentative answers (hypothesis), then collecting and analyzing data to provide evidence for a against their hypotheses inquiry method
have students apply "who, what, when, where, why, how" to all problems,; or ask students to generate questions questioning
developed the direct instruction model for effective teaching; outline of lesson consists of: objectives, standards, expectations, anticipatory set or advance organizer, teaching, guided practice and monitoring, closure, and independent practice Madaline Hunter's "Effective teaching model"
introduced before the learning begins and are also presented at a higher level; they act as a bridge between the new concepts being taught and what the student already knows Davis Ausubel's "Advanced organizers"
everyone can learn given the right circumstances mastery learning
provide modeling of what you want student to replicate in a smaller group, or can be given to the whole class demonstrations
methods, devices, or even mental tricks for improving memory mnemonics
can be done as an entire class with all using the same format or students can select what information they feel is most pertinent note-taking
teaching technique where the teacher outlines a lecture thus enabling students to know where the instruction is going outlining
could be implemented to better instruct students who are visual learners; could include: photos, drawings, art work, graphs, charts, slides, videos, etc use of visual aids
1) propose why questions to students 2) engage in what activities 3) encourage students to ask How 4) answering the IF question 5) back to why.... cyclical pattern 4MAT curriculum development model (Bernice Mccarthy)
investigative process of learning in which students are asked to pose questions, analyze data, develop conclusions or generalizations, classify, predict, and experiment inquiry model
students work together in solving a problem or examining a situation collaborative learning
students self-select a project that they would like to work on and all learning that occurs is centered around their project and ties in with it in some way project-based learning
pretend setting or situation that parallels a real-world setting or situation and allows students to practice problem-solving skills stimulations
assessments that are administered and scored in exactly the same manner for all students Standardized tests
indicate that the performance results of the students who take this test are compared with the performance results of other students taking the test norm-referenced tests
compare students' knowledge and achievement in an academic area to those objectives of the curriculum established by state standards criterion referenced tests
designed to measure the current level of learners' performance, also designed to show the depth of one's knowledge and mastery of subject area curricula achievement tests
student's capacity for altering behavior when presented with new information or experiences aptitude tests
formal assessment where the teacher is observing if a student has learned a specific task structure observations
notes that a teacher makes while observing students in various classroom situations anecdotal notes
examples include: webbing, brainstorming, organizing random collection of terms into categories, or a KWL chart assessments of prior knowledge
while teaching ask students questions and assess their understanding by their responses, reteach concepts where there is still confusion student responses during a lesson
collection of materials that demonstrate how each student is progressing across time in learning content, mastering operations, broadening and/or refining tastes and interests, and progressing in development toward more complex or mature stages. portfolios
allows students the opportunity to express their thoughts, feelings, and ideas in a non-threatening context journals
students evaluate their learning based on who knows them best.... themselves. self-evaluations
can be used as a standardized assessment if it is administered and scored in same way for all students; performance assessment
degree to which a test measures what it is intended to measure validity
refers to the consistency of test results reliability
average of scores mean
point on distribution at which there are equal numbers of scores above and below it median
represents most frequently occurring score mode
assessment of student performance by means of a rating system analytical scoring
assessment of a student's work in its entirely rather than judging specific parts holistic scoring
examples of different types, models, illustrations, or levels of possible responses that are used as guidelines for assessing student work rubrics
percentiles range from 1 to 99, where a score lies within this range indicates relative performance compared with the norm group percentile rank
distribution of possible scores is divided into nine parts; range from 1 to 9, a score of 5 is the mean, and scores from just below 4 to just above 6 are considered average; scores 1 to 3 = below average and 6 to 9 = above average stanines
describe whether a student has met a certain criteria deemed in the curriculum mastery levels
shows how many items the student got right on the test or on each subtest raw scores
raw scores from subtests are converted to scaled scores scaled scores
represent a level of achievement that is considered average for a particular grade and month of school within that grade grade equivalent score
is an index of how scores are spread out around the mean, regardless of the shape of the distribution standard deviation
used in judging reliability, refers to the fact that no score is absolutely precise standard error of measurement
on-going throughout the learning process, to discover where students are at in the learning process formative evaluation
process in which the teacher determines how well students have mastered new concepts and skills and met lesson objectives summative evaluation
norm-referenced and standardized but are designed to be administered to students who are showing signs of difficulty in specific subject areas diagnostic evaluation
1) important to utilize wait time for students to develop a response to a question that has been asked 2) move around the room 3) make eye contact with student 4) use "voice" effectively 5) clearly explain your expectations for your students effective verbal and nonverbal communication
1) use local representatives of ethnic groups as resources and role models for achievement, demonstration, and explanation 2) be aware of the cultural diversity in the classroom 3) be sensitive to how students react around you as the teacher cultural and gender differences in communication
4) call on girls as often as you call on boys 5) girls tend to emphasize memorization, they evaluate thier own learning during the learning process, girls preform well in reading activities, girls express emotions with words 6) Boys learn more by elabor cultural and gender differences in communication
Created by: mlove12
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