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SS (Grade 8) Test 2

Grade 8 Social Studies Civil War Test

QuestionAnswer
Harriet Tubman “Black Moses” conductor-led slaves to freedom. Set up “stations” in the North and South that had hiding places for runaway slaves. She helped about 300 slaves.
Harriet Beecher Stowe An american abolitionist who wrote the novel Uncle Tom’s Cabin about the evils of slavery. In the end, the hero of the story, Uncle Tom, is flogged to death by Simon Legree, because he will not give away the hiding place of two escaped slaves.
Border Ruffians In Bleeding Kansas, border ruffians from Missouri crossed into Kansas armed and threatening the anti-slavery settlers
Beecher's Bibles Northerners sent abolitionists and Beecher’s Bibles which were rifles to Kansas
Supreme Court Chief Justice Roger B. Taney Handed down a decision against Dred Scott. Scott could not sue because he was a slave; he was not a U.S. citizen. Taney declared the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional because outlawing slavery would go against a slave owner’s right to property
Senator Charles Sumner Senator of MA, was attacked because he delivered a speech in congress called “The Crime Against Kansas,” where he attacked the South and several of its senators
William Walker Walker was a filibuster-an adventurer who engages in private military action in a foreign country. Walker invades Nicaragua and declares himself president in 1856
Dred Scott A Missouri slave, sued for his freedom because his owner had taken him to a free state for a few years, he was first in Illinois and then taken to Minnesota. where slavery was forbidden. Later, he returned to Missouri and sued for his freedom
John Brown Invaded the south,armed the slaves, and let them fight. On October of 1859, with his small band of 18 people he seized the US arsenal at Harpers Ferry, Virginia raided the estates of nearby planters and “freed” about 30 slaves. Only him and 4 survivors
Preston Brooks Was the nephew of a Senator who Sumner insulted, on May 22nd, 1856, Brooks walked up to Senator Sumner, who was sitting at his desk in the Senate Chamber, and beat him senseless
Jefferson Davis In Feb. 1861 the confederate states of America began with Jefferson Davis as president
Stephen Douglas and Clay's Compromise Senator who was able to get Clay’s compromise passed but in separate parts Northerners voted for the bills that favored their section and Southerners did the same
Stephen Douglas and the Kansas-Nebraska Bill He wanted Chicago, his home city, to recieve the prize of being the terminus of the transcontinental raiway so he passed a bill which provided for Kansas Territory and a Nebraska Territory Got Kansas-Nebraska Bill passed in 1854
Fort Sumter First battle of civil war- Union fort with General Anderson, SC attacked and Lincoln resupplied the fort, Anderson ended up surrendering The only casualties were 2 union soldiers who were killed during the 21-gun salute after they had evacuated sumter
The Republican Party Formed as an anti-slavery party Formed to show their connection to Jefferson’s Democratic-Republican party Party was launched on July 6th, 1854
Draft Riots The U.S. Army was drafting citizens for service. All people were drafted regardless of status, but the very rich could pay their way out of going to war. This made the lower class very angry and so they started these draft riots to protest the unfairness.
Secession The action of withdrawing formally from membership of a federation or body, especially a political state. (The South threatened to do this if Lincoln was elected president and ended up doing so in 1860, forming the CSA and starting the war.)
Abraham Lincoln Abraham Lincoln was the 16th president of the United States. He preserved the Union during the U.S. Civil War and brought about the emancipation of slaves
Confederate States South Carolina Within six weeks, Mississippi, Florida , Alabama, Georgia, Louisiana, and Texas also seceded
Underground Railroad Well organized series of routes and stopovers (stations) leading north to Canada for runaway slaves By 1861 this scheme had helped some 75,000 slaves escape to freedom Harriet Tubman→ “Black Moses” conducted slaves to freedom
The Fugitive Slave Act Part of the compromise of 1850 southern-dominated supreme court denied the right of congress to exclude slavery from the territories
Uncle Tom's Cabin Book that caused controversy about slavery- showed people that slaves really have feelings and that they are human too, without this book, there probably wouldn’t have been a civil war. Ends with main character being flogged.
Compromise of 1850 CA was admitted as a free state, New Mexico + Utah - popular sovereignty, The fugitive slave law - runaway slaves who went North had to be returned to owners Slave trade in DC stopped but slavery can continue
Bleeding Kansas (beginning) pro-slavery and antislavery settlers poured into Kansas on election day, 7,000 Missourians crossed into Kansas to illegally vote pro-slavery and antislavery settlers both boycotted the second election
Bleeding Kansas (middle) by 1856, 2 governors in Kansas- pro- (lecompton) and anti-slavery (Lawrence) Northerners sent abolitionists and “Beecher Bibles” rifles “Border Ruffians” from Missouri crossed into Kansas, armed and threatening anti-slavery settlers
Bleeding Kansas (end) Invasion of Lawrence: “first battle of the Civil War” John Brown retaliates by invading the pro-slavery town of Pottawatomie The violence, a civil war, continued in Kansas until it entered the union as a free state in 1861
South Carolina's Reaction to Lincoln's Election South Carolina and, later, Texas seceded from the Union They wrote a new constitution and announced the birth of the Confederate States of America
Why the North saw secession as unconstitutional They believed the Federal government is the strongest, Secession would destroy the Union, Believed the South didn’t want to follow majority rule
Why the Southern states believed they could secede They couldn’t be forced to stay in the Union They feared the North would abolish slavery Some did NOT want to secede or protect slavery
Advantages the North had during the civil war 90 naval ships, 85% of factories in the US, diverse food crops
Disadvantages the North had during the civil war Smaller population, Economy that depended on selling cotton to Europe, Jefferson Davis → military man not a politician
Lincoln's Goal at the start of the civil war preserving the Union was his main goal of the Civil War — not abolishing slavery. (Lincoln) "If I could save the Union without freeing any slave I would do it, and if I could save it by freeing all slaves I would do it."
Why didn't Lincoln free the slaves at the start of the Civil War Because his original goal was just to preserve the union (not to free the slaves).
What was stated in the Emancipation Proclamation regarding slavery Lincoln warned on January 1st 1863 that any state in rebellion against the US, their slaves would be free
2 Northern reactions to the Emancipation Proclamation
Created by: lopiegabby