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Unit 3

Age Of Reason

Define Reason Thinking in a logical way
Define Enlightened Moving away from ignorance
Define Ignorance The state of not knowing much
Define Salon A meeting place for writers, artist, and thinkers
Define Natural Rights Rights that people supposedly have under natural law. The Declaration of Independence of the United States lists life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness as natural rights.
Define Philosophy the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence, especially when considered as an academic discipline.
Define Secular attitudes, activities, or other things that have no religious or spiritual basis.
Define Mercantilism the economic theory that trade generates wealth and is stimulated by the accumulation of profitable balances, which a government should encourage by means of protectionism.
Define Revolution forcible overthrow of a government or social order in favor of a new system
Define Geocentric Theory is an astronomical theory which describes the universe as a Geocentric system, i.e., a system which puts the Earth in the center of the universe, and describes other objects from the point of view of the Earth
Define Heliocentric Theory a theory that places the Sun as the center of the universe, and the planets orbiting around it.
Define Laissez-Faire a policy or attitude of letting things take their own course, without interfering
Define Hypothesis a supposition or proposed explanation made on the basis of limited evidence as a starting point for further investigation.
Define Social Contract an implicit agreement among the members of a society to cooperate for social benefits, for example by sacrificing some individual freedom for state protection.
Define Spiritual relating to religion or religious belief
Who was Copernicus Provided first geometrical support for heliocentric theory in 1514.
Who was Galileo Italian astronomer, physicist, engineer, philosopher, and mathematician who played a major role in the scientific revolution during the Renaissance
Who was Ptolemy Egyptian astronomer of Greek decent. The term “geocentric” came to being from this theory. Outlined the architecture of the universe
Define Induction reasoning method where one makes a lot of observations then generalize rules of nature - this leads to scientific observation as a to supply strong evidence for (not absolute proof of) the truth of the conclusion.
Define Deduction reasoning method that starts out with a general statement, or hypothesis, and examines the possibilities to reach a specific, logical conclusion.
Who was Rene Descartes Great mathematician (1596-1650) showed that all algebraic equations cold be plotted on a graph.
Who invented the telescope and developed first microscope and the water lifting machine Galileo
What theory replaced the Geocentric Theory Heliocentric Theory
Who was Ptolemy's astronomy theory based on Aristotle
What was the intent of Science prior to the Scientific Revolution, To prove God exist
What was one of the leading Principles of the Scientific Revolution Logic over faith (religion was no longer the only possible explanation for events)
Who proposed Induction Reasoning Francis Bacon
Who was Francis Bacon English philosopher, statesman, and scientist 1561-1650. Proposed Induction reasoning
What did Ptolemy famous text-Compositione Matematica- proved Earth is the center of the universe
What di the Church do to Galileo after he made his claims on earths movement Forced him to give up his claim
What are the Principles of the Revolution Logic over Faith Observe, experiment & publish Verifiable; Use math to prove a point Money; Patronage (rich supporting scientist) Questioning; disconnect between observation and expectations
Why did the Geocentric Theory stay around for so long 1) It explained gravity 2) It went along with the teachings of the Church
What is the reasoning method that goes from Theory to a Fact Deduction
What is the reasoning method that goes from Observation to a Theory is called what Induction.
Who stated "Cogito ergo sum" I think therefore I am Rene Descartes
What mathematician is credited with using Deduction reasoning Rene Descartes
What two methods of reasoning Induction and Deduction
What reasoning method called for making a lot of observations Induction
What are the four steps in Deduction Reasoning Theory Hypothesis Observation Confirmation (Fact)
What are the four steps in Induction Reasoning Observation Pattern Tentative Hypothesis Theory
What is the philosophical method by which one makes many observations and then generalizes a rule based on those observations Induction
What is the term for believing/preaching ideas that go against the established religion Heresy
What is a proposed explanation for a phenomenon that one must test in order to prove true Hypothesis
What is a system of well ordered steps at which one solves a problem Scientific Method
What do you call the perception one has of life and reality and how they fit into the larger order of the universe Worldview
Define Abjuration Official and public denouncement and recanting of ones ideas and beliefs
What is the philosophical approach pioneered by Rene Descartes whereas one starts with a theory and breaks it down into facts in order to prove it Deduction
Define Astronomy Scientific study of the stars, planets, and cosmos
Who Explained in his book On the Revolution of Heavenly Bodies that the Earth’s rotation is what makes it appear as if the stars orbit our planet; Copernicus
Who argued for a geocentric model of the universe which dominated scientific thought for centuries; Ptolemy
Who showed that any algebraic equation could be plotted on a graph, thus combining Greek with Hindu and Arabic mathematical knowledge; Descartes
Who used mathematical proof to argue that the earth was the center of the universe; Ptolemy
Who was forced by the Catholic Church to publicly reject his own ideas because they were considered dangerous Galileo
Who used mathematical proof to argue that the sun, not the earth, was the center of the universe; Copernicus
Who used deduction to attempt to prove his own existence as well as the existence of God; Descartes
Who supported the application of science and established a philosophical method known as induction; Bacon
Who in his search for absolute truth, developed the declaration “Cogito ergo sum,” which is Latin for, “I think therefore I am.”; Descartes
Who developed several new tools to science including the microscope and the telescope; Galileo
Prior to the Scientific Revolution, what was the primary purpose of science was to prove that this existed; God
The earliest scientists focused on what field of study astronomy
The scientific worldview prior to the Scientific Revolution was dominated primarily by two scientific thinkers, including Ptolemy and this famous Greek; . Aristotle
There were several principles of the Scientific Revolution; identify 2 1.logic over faith. 2.observe, experiment, and publish. 3.verifiable: use mathematics to prove a point. provided by patrons 5.questioning: disconnect between between observations and expectations.
The Scientific Revolution was an important step in the secularization of Europe. The root word “secular” in the previous sentence means this; . non-religious
Proposing/teaching scientific ideas, such as the heliocentric theory of the universe, went against established doctrine/belief and could get one in trouble with the Church, possibly being identified as one of these heretic
Astronomy was a popular field for early scientists in Europe, primarily due to two factors, identify one the heavens are spiritually significant; easy access - look up
Religion and science had been interconnected with each other for a long time prior to the scientific revolution due to the fact that most early scientists also held this job position; priest/monk
Giordano Bruno was an early figure in the quest to challenge Church authority on scientific ideas about the universe. What was one of his scientific claims that got him into trouble; that there were other worlds & that the universe was infinite
Galileo was accused of, found guilty, and forced to recant his scientific ideas and teachings about the universe, identify 1 of his ideas that was belief to be contrary to the Bible and heretical; 1) the sun is at the center of the universe, not the earth & 2) the earth rotates on a daily basis
Created by: BKGoode



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