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Housing, Land Use Reg (Subd, Zoning)

Public Health Movement second half of the 1800's
1855 the first model tenement was built in New York City.
1879 the first dumbbell tenement was built. This form of housing was built throughout New York City but often had poor lighting, little air, and little space.
Tenement House Act of 1867, New York City passed this ordinance required new tenement buildings to provide a narrow air shaft between adjacent structures, windows that open into the shaft, two toilets on each floor, and a one square yard window in each room. first major housing code in the US
How the Other Half Lives 1890 Jacob Riis published , which highlighted the plight of the poor in New York.
Tenement House Law of 1901, New York State outlawed dumbbell tenements. Inspected by Lawrence Veiller. The City required inspection and permits for construction and alterations. It also required wide light and air areas between buildings and toilets and running water in each apartment unit.
Neighborhood Unit Concept, 1920 Clarence Perry created as part of the New York Regional Plan. The Neighborhood Unit Concept defines a neighborhood based on a five minute walking radius. At the center is a school. Each neighborhood is approximately 160 acres.
Public Works Administration (PWA), created in 1934 as a response to the Great Depression. The PWA provided 85 percent of the cost of public housing projects. This represented the first federally supported public housing program.
National Housing Act, 1934 was passed by Congress. It established the Federal Housing Administration with the purpose of insuring home mortgages.
Resettlement Administration, 1935 used New Deal funds to develop new towns. Greendale, WI, Greenhills, OH, and Greenbelt, MD, are all in existence today. In addition, 99 other communities were planned.
U.S. Housing Act, 1937 provided $500 million in home loans for the development of low-cost housing. This Act tied slum clearance to public housing.
Serviceman's Readjustment Act, 1944 commonly known as the GI Bill, guaranteed home loans to veterans. The result was the rapid development of suburbs.
Housing Act of 1949 the first comprehensive housing legislation passed. The Act called for the construction of 800,000 new housing units and emphasized slum clearance.
Housing Act of 1954 called for slum prevention and urban renewal. Additionally, the Act provided funding for planning for cities under 25,000 population. The 701 funds were later expanded to allow for statewide, interstate, and regional planning.
Housing Act of 1959 made federal matching funds available for comprehensive planning at the metropolitan, regional, state, and interstate levels.
Housing Act of 1961 provided interest subsidies to nonprofit organizations, limited-dividend corporations, cooperatives, and public agencies for the construction of public housing projects for low and moderate income families to rent.
U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development (HUD), 1965 was formed through the Housing and Urban Development Act of 1965. The act also put into place rent subsidies for the poor, home loans at reduced interest rates, and subsidies for public housing projects.
Demonstration Cities and Metropolitan Development Act, 1966 launch model cities program. The Act provided financial incentives for coordinated metro area planning for open spaces, water supply, sewage disposal, and mass transit; establish a loan guarantee program to encourage the development of "new communities."
Civil Rights Act of 1968 made racial discrimination in the sale or rental of housing illegal.
Housing and Urban Development Act of 1968 provided for the construction of six million subsidized housing units. The Act also authorized monthly subsidies for private houses for low income families.
Miami Valley Regional Planning Commission in Ohio, 1970 adopted a housing plan that called for low and moderate income housing to be allocated on a fair share basis.
Pruitt Igoe Project, 1972 was demolished in Saint Louis. The demolition of this public housing project marked a shift away from high-rise concentrated public housing.
Community Development Block Grant Program (CDBG), 1974 created under the Housing and Community Development Act. This grant provides federal funds for the improvement of blighted areas. Consolidated six categorical programs into one, created the Section 8 program - rent subsidies for low-income housing.
National Manufactured Housing Construction and Safety Act of 1974 Prohibited municipalities from regulating manufactured homes through the building code. The homes could be regulated in terms of location, size, and appearance. This act applied to all manufactured homes built in 1976 or later.
Urban Development Action Grant Program (UDAG), authorized under the 1977 amendments to the 1974 Housing and Community Development Act promoted public--private partnerships for redevelopment of urban areas. It also required intergovernmental cooperation in the placement of projects. Finally, it cut funding for the Section 701 comprehensive planning program.
National Affordable Housing Act of 1990 created the HOME program, which provides funds for housing rehabilitation.
HOPE VI, 1992 provided funds for the redevelopment of severely distressed public housing. It also allowed for the demolition of public housing as well as the construction of new public housing. The result has been a deconcentration of public housing.
HUD requires local communities to prepare a Consolidated Plan, 1995 to receive funding from a number of HUD programs.
Consolidated Plan both a process and a document. It is a process through which a community identifies its housing, homeless and community development needs and establishes multi-year goals, priorities and strategies and an annual action plan for addressing those needs.
Sweat equity the interest or increased value in a property earned from labor put towards the restoration of a property. Habitat for Humanity is an example of a sweat equity program,
Urban homesteading used by a number of cities to encourage residents to occupy and renovate vacant properties, such as Detroit. HUD allows for federally owned properties to be sold to homesteaders.
Workforce housing always refers to affordable housing. It ensures that teachers, nurses, police officers, and others can afford housing in the community. The term has much less social stigma than affordable housing.
Subdivision the division of land into two or more parcels, sites, or lots, for the purpose of transfer of ownership, development, or other form of valuable interest. This definition varies from state to state and may include minimum acreage requirements.
Plat a map of a tract or parcel of land.
Replat allows for lots to be subdivided further or added back together.
Amending plat corrects errors or adds additional information to a plat.
Vacating plat allows for a plat to be terminated prior to the selling of any lots.
Preliminary plat a scale mechanical drawing with precise topography and prescribed intervals showing the calculated location of all lots, streets, drainage patterns, facilities, and proposed dedications.
Final plat the approved preliminary plat with all bearing, monuments, curves, and notations, together with all dedications, easement, and approvals.
Subdivision of land, or platting first appeared in the United States in 1660
Purpose behind subdivision regulations regulate subdivision development and implement planning policies; orderly growth; adequate facilities; protect from inadequate police and fire service; ensure sanitary conditions; require compliance standards as conditions ; officially register land.
performance bond an agreement between the property owner and city that if the developer fails to meet the requirements, the government may use the bond to cover the cost of constructing the improvements.
Dedications gifts of land for public purposes, such as roads, parks, and utilities
Impact fees typically charged for off-site infrastructure that is needed to provide service to a development, such as a water or sewer main
subdivision bonus the extension of development benefits beyond those normally offered in exchange for enhancements such as affordable housing, cluster housing, and open space preservation.
Zoning separation of land uses
Purposes of Zoning Protect and maintain property values;Promote public health and safety;Protect the environment;Promote the aesthetic of a community;Manage traffic;Manage density;Encourage a variety of housing; Attract businesses and industries.
Zoning Regulates Land use, Lot Size, Density, Building placement, Building height, Building bulk, Setbacks,Provision of adequate light and air, Parking, Landscaping, Signage
Planning and Zoning Commission: Issue recommendations in matters of zoning to City Council, made up of residents and business owners, read staff reports, visit sites prior to meetings, should think long-term
Board of Zoning Appeals: quasi-judicial board that hears cases for variances, special exceptions to the zoning ordinance, and appeals of staff's administration of the zoning ordinance
City Council (or County Commission) charged with making the final decision on whether to approve or disapprove a case. In order for a community to adopt zoning, two separate documents must be created: the zoning text and the zoning map
zoning text, ordinance, or code lays out the exact regulations that the zoning is created to implement
zoning map where zoning clearly becomes applicable to individual properties
amendment to the zoning ordinance changes the requirements for all properties
amendment to the zoning map changes the zoning district on a particular property
Euclidean zoning named after the City of Euclid, Ohio. most protective restrictions on residential land uses, less on commercial uses, and virtually none on industrial uses. Places single-family residential, at the top of the pyramid
Cumulative zoning less protective of various land uses than Euclidean zoning. SFR districts are the most exclusive. In a city with cumulative zoning, a person could build a SFR in any zoning district. However a factory could only locate in an industrial district.
modified version of cumulative zoning Allows cities to provide a greater degree of protection than they could with cumulative zoning. For example, MFR district would allow both SFR and MFR. However, the industrial district would not allow residential uses.
nonconforming use property use that existed prior to the adoption of district regulations and is allowed to continue under the "grandfather clause."
Amortization sets a definite period of time within which the use must come into compliance with the zoning ordinance
accessory use one that is incidental to the main use of a property. It is typically located on the same lot as the main use and smaller in size than the main use. Some examples of accessory uses include outside sales, outside storage, a telecommunications tower, etc
Planned Unit Developments (PUDs) unique zoning tool that can offer an alternative to strict zoning regulations. PUDs are typically used for large developments that include a mix of uses.
overlay district or zone a set of additional restrictions that are placed over the top of an existing zone. Two common overlays are for airports and historic preservation
variance change in the terms of the zoning regulations due to economic or physical hardship. There are two types of variances: the use variance and the area variance.
use variance allows a property to have a use not explicitly allowed under the zoning district regulations.
area variance allows a property to be excluded from the physical site requirements under the zoning ordinance.
Big-box retail is located in communities across the country. Local governments have responded to big-box retail in a variety of ways, including square footage limitations,design standards, and site plan reviews. Big-box retail generally has 50,000 or more square feet
Concentrated animal feeding operations the practice of raising farm animals indoors and in high volumes. Local governments may be limited in their ability to regulate concentrated animal feeding operations
Right-to-Farm Acts which limit the ability of local governments to regulate commercial farms and limits lawsuits by private and public organizations
McMansion describes large houses that are mass produced and have perceived negative impacts on the community.
Teardown the demolition of a home for the purposes of building a larger home on the same lot.
Section VIII Created from this act 1974 Community Development Block Grant Program (CDBG). Created to provide rent subsides for low-income housing.
HOME Program Created from this act 1990 National Affordable Housing Act. Created to provide funds for housing rehabilitation.
HOPE VI Created from this act 1990 National Affordable Housing Act. Created for redevelopment of severely distressed public housing though demolition and reconstruction = deconcentration of public housing
Community Development Block Grant (CDBG) Created under this act 1974 Housing and Community Development Act. Created to provide flexibility for communities to use federal funds to improve blighted areas. Consolidated 6 categorical urban programs into one.
Created by: cristinrae21
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