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vocab/concepts Egypt

Fertile Crescent an arc of rich farmland that extends from the Persian Gulf to the Mediterranean Sea. Featured a flat plain of land between 2 rivers
Mesopotamia the area between the Tigris and Euphrates Rivers
irrigation a way of supplying water to an area or land
canals human-made waterways that connect water basins to a network of ditches
division of labor a type of arrangement in which each worker specializes in a particular task or job
Sumerians people who developed the world's first civilization in southern Mesopotamia
city-state a political unit consisting of a city and all of the countryside surrounding it
Gilgamesh a king from Uruk, he is best known as a legendary figure in Sumerian literature
Akkadians a society that lived just north of Sumer-for a period of time they lived in peace with the Sumerians
Sargon an Akkadian king who built a strong permanent army-the army defeated all of the Sumerian city-states and the entire region grew to become the world's first empire
empire a land with different territories and peoples under a single rule
polytheism the worship and belief in many gods
monotheism the worship and belief in only one god
priests people who performed religious ceremonies-they we believed to interpret the wishes of the gods and they could make offerings to the gods
social hierarchy the division of labor by rank or class -kings, priests, skilled craftspeople, merchants, traders, farmers, laborers and slaves
Enheduanna the daughter of Sargon-she was an educated priestess and the first known female writer in history
cuneiform the world's first writing system of wedge-shaped symbols-it was written with a sharp tool, stylus, on a clay tablet. first used to keep business records
scribes a writer hired by government officials to keep track of trade, records, etc. It was also a way to move up in social class as they were highly regarded
epics long poems that tell the stories of heroes-the story of Gilgamesh is a Sumerian example
Sumerian technical advances the wheel is the most important-other examples include the plow, water clock, math system based on the number 60 and medical catalogue
Phoenicians These people built a trading society in the eastern Mediterranean region. Theyn also used the stars to establish directions at sea.
Lebanon This is the present day location of an ancienty society that developed a 22 letter alphabet that the English alphabet is based on today.
Assyrians established a library containing legal, medical, religious and literary texts
Babylonians wrote down laws with specific punishments
Chaldeans King Nebuchadnezzar from this empire rebuilt Babylon into a beautiful city with hanging gardens. They also became a center for astronony .
Hittites mastered ironworking to make the strongest weapons of the time
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