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US History Chap 5/6


Dawes Act An act that removed Indian land from tribal possesion, redivided it, and distributed it among individual Indian families. Designed to break tribal mentalities and promote individualism
Homestead Act 1862 - provided free land in the west as long as the person would settle there and make improvements in five years
time zones the division of the continent into four sections each with a time staggered by one hour. Used to counteract the organizational nightmare that varied local times supplied to operators.
Ghost Dance Holy Man believed this dance would bring back the buffalo and return Native Americans to their land
Long Drives drove herds over unfenced plains towards railroads, they graze on free government grass
Robber Barons industrialists or big business owners who gained huge profits by paying their employees extremely low wages Pushed competitors out of business selling products cheaper than cost to produce it. When they controlled the market, they hiked prices high
Triangle Shirtwaist factory Disaster forced state and national attention on working conditions in factories and stores
Collective Bargaining negotiations between labor unions (workers) and management for better working conditions/pay/hours
horizontal integration when one company owns other companies involved in the same business.
vertical integration Carnegie used this to control costs and therefor increase profits-- he acquired companies that provided materials and services upon which his enterprises depended
monopoly a trust that gains exclusive control of an industry.
trust a group of companies that turn control of their stock over to a board of directors. The directors than run the companies as a single enterprise.
Social Darwinism theory that sought to apply the biological principles of natural selection and evolution to society.
philanthropy charitable efforts to promote public welfare
Knights of Labor One of the earliest national unions founded in 1869 that consisted of skilled and unskilled workers.
Gospel of Wealth This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
American Federation of Labor an association of self-governing national unions formed in 1886; brainchild of Samuel Gompers. Attempted to speak for all workers but did not represent all of them, leaving unskilled workers to fend for themselves.
Assimilation Process of converting Native Americans into Euro-Americans through education, farming, religion, dress/appearance, language, and housing.
Morrill Act 1862 and 1890 -- gave federal land to the states to help finance colleges
Farmers' Alliance Occurred in the south/great plains. Small farmers got together to fight against merchants, RRs, and the wealthy. Leaders traveled to lecture/recruit. This promoted loyalty and agricultural education. Women were involved, and Blacks formed their own
Populism Family farmers' political party; against the illegal practices of the railroads and big business
bimetallism A monetary system in which the government would give citizens either gold or silver in exchange for paper currency or checks
The Grange enhanced the lives of isolated farmers through social, educational, and fraternal activities; the Grangers gradually raised their goals from individual self-improvement of the farmer' collective plight
Gold Standard Act of 1900 provided that paper currency be redeemed freely in gold only; caused the Populists to fade away
The Chisholm Trail The Chisholm Trail was a trail used in the late 19th century to drive cattle overland from ranches in Texas to Kansas railheads
Soddy a home built of blocks of turf
Life of Cowboy Not like Hollywood Hard work, long hours low pay. Many were civil war vets African Americans and Mexicans
Significance of Buffalo Native Americans dependent on white settlers and railroads decimated herd. More than for meat, clothing, tools etc
Union Pacific Railroad A railroad, commissioned by Congress, that started in Omaha, and it connected with the Central Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, UTAH
Central Pacific Railroad A railroad that started in Sacramento , and connected with the Union Pacific Railroad in Promentary Point, UTAH
Consumerism Buying wants not just needs. came after technology made life "easier" not all time spent surviving
Created by: PLHShistory1
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