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7 Nationalism and Se

JAHKMLHS C7 Nationalism and Sectionalism

turnpike These are roads for which uses had to pay a toll,
National Road Transportation from East to West when this network was completed in 1841 tying Cumberland, Maryland, to Vandalia, Illinois.
Clermont The success of this steamboat changed all America’s navigable streams into two-way arteries.
Erie Canal This “Big Ditch” basically linked the Atlantic Ocean to the Great Lakes.
Industrial Revolution This period ushered in the modern factory system as harnessed steam and water multiplied the power of human muscles ten-thousandfold.
Samuel Slater This man is called the “Father of the Factory System.”
Francis Cabot Lowell This man and his partners built a factory that was the first to include all stages of cotton manufacturing in one building.
Lowell girls These workers lived in boardinghouses managed by the corporations and were expected to follow company rules for curfew, church attendance and proper behavior.
Robert Fulton This concept, which we take for granted today, was first proposed by Honore le Blanc and put into practice by Eli Whitney in the production of firearms.
Eli Whitney The tools and machines this man invented allowed unskilled workers to build absolutely uniform parts for guns, so that the whole gun no longer had to be replaced if a single part malfunctioned or broke
mass production In this system goods are standardized by means of precision-manufactured, interchangeable parts.
Samuel F. B. Morse This man used the invention of the electromagnet in 1825 to develop a way to communicate almost instantly over long distances, using his own code.
Samuel Slater This man, who knew the secrets of English textile machinery, escaped to America and built a cotton-spinning mill at Pawtucket, Rhode Island, for the merchant Moses Brown.
Eli Whitney In 1793 this man constructed a rough machine fifty times more effective than the handpicking process in separating the seed from cotton.
Erie Canal When this transportation system began to operate, the cost per mile of transporting a ton of freight between Buffalo and New York City declined from nearly 20 cents to less than 2 cents.
interchangeable parts These are identical components that can substitute one for another, particularly important in manufacturing.
DeWitt Clinton This man ran against Madison in his run for a second term and lost. However, this man is probably best remembered for his staunch support of the building of the Erie Canal.
John Fitch This man made the first successful trial of a steamboat on the Delaware River on August 22, 1787, in the presence of members of the Constitutional Convention.
Clermont This steamboat, although not the first to be built, was the first to become a practical, financial, and commercially successful steamboat.
Robert Fulton This man became known as the “Father of Steam Navigation.”
mass production This making of goods in large quantity was enabled by the factory system.
market revolution This event was a transformation from a subsistence economy of scattered farms and tiny workshops into a national network of industry and commerce.
capital This term refers to money needed to build factories or other productive assets.
nativist This type of person campaigned for laws to discourage immigration or to deny political rights to newcomers.
Tariff of 1816 This type of tax was the first true protectionist measure, reversing the revenue-generation emphasis of the 1789 measure.
cotton gin . This machine reduced the amount of time and the cost of separating the cotton seeds from the valuable white fiber
labor union This group of workers is united to seek higher pay, fewer hours, or better working conditions.
Rush-Bagot Agreement This resulted from an exchange of notes between the U. S. Secretary of State and the British minister of State in which the U. S. and Britain agreed to limit warships on the Great Lakes.
Convention of 1818 This treaty set the boundary between the U. S. and Canada from the Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains as the 49 parallel.
nationalism This belief, together with a growing spirit of optimism, was prevalent during Monroe’s Presidency from 1817 to 1825.
First Seminole War During this campaign Jackson captured two British traders, Alexander Arbuthnot and Robert Ambrister whom he accused of aiding the enemy and hanged Arbuthnot and shot Ambrister.
Adams-Onís Treaty This agreement set the southern boundary of Louisiana at the Sabine River and renounced any claims to Texas.
Missouri Compromise After the passage of this legislation slavery becomes a dominant issue in American politics.
Monroe Doctrine This policy was stated as part of a message to Congress in which the President stated that the U. S. would view as dangerous any European attempts to further colonize the Americas.
specie This term refers to any metallic money issued by the government.
American System This term coined by Henry Clay reflects a plan that would strengthen the union. One of the policies of the plan called for a tariff to protect American industries.
Panic of 1819 This event caused a significant deficit in balance of trade with Britain which meant that the U.S. was drained of vital reserves of gold and silver coin.
Missouri Compromise This legislation kept the balance between slave and free states in the Senate equal.
John Jacob Astor This man used efficient organization and ruthless methods to destroy his weaker competition and lay the foundation for the first great American fortune. His American Fur Company was chartered in New York in 1808.
Richard Rush This acting Secretary of State signed an agreement that for almost complete disarmament of the Great Lakes.
Charles Bagot This British foreign minister was instrumental in negotiating a disarmament of the Great Lakes, as well as a treaty that set the boundary between Canada and the U. S.
John Quincy Adams This President believed in the American System and signed the Tariff of 1828, the tariff of abominations, to help fund internal improvements.
James Monroe This President is responsible for the policy which basically informed Europe that they could not recolonize the Americas.
Henry Clay This man is remembered as the “Great Compromiser” for his work on settling the Missouri crisis with the Missouri Compromise.
James Madison During this President’s terms of office Stephen Decatur forced the government of Algiers to sign a treaty ending the harassment of American ships in the Mediterranean.
McCulloch v. Maryland This Supreme Court Case established that state action may not impede validly constitutional exercises of power by the Federal government.
Marbury v. Madison This Supreme Court Case set the precedent for judicial review.
Martin v. Hunter’s Lessee This Supreme Court Case was the first case to assert ultimate Supreme Court authority over state courts in matters of federal law.
Cohens v. Virginia This Supreme Court Case asserted the power of the Supreme Court to review state supreme court decisions in criminal law matters.
Gibbons v. Ogden In this Supreme Court Case the Supreme Court ruled that the power to regulate interstate navigation was reserved to Congress by the Commerce Clause of the Constitution.
McCulloch v. Maryland This Supreme Court Case established that the Constitution grants to Congress implied powers inherent in the nature of the Constitution as a blueprint for a practically functional government.
John Quincy Adams This Secretary of State under James Monroe was responsible for the acquisition of Spanish Florida.
Democratic Party This political group believed that the states should retain as much power as possible. The federal government should only have the powers absolutely necessary for the nation to function.
Indian Removal Act President Jackson believed that this legislation was beneficial to native Americans since they would be able to preserve their cultures rather than being destroyed by whites.
caucus This is a closed meeting of party members for choosing a candidate, especially for President.
corrupt bargain This term was applied by Jackson supporters to appointment of Henry Clay as Secretary of State by John Quincy Adams supposedly because Clay had helped Adams win the Presidency in the House.
Jacksonian Democracy This ideology viewed government as a protector of "the humbler members of society—the farmers, mechanics, and laborers" against moneyed, privileged interests seeking to turn the public powers of government to unfair private advantage.
Trail of Tears This term reflects the suffering—hunger, exposure, and disease—that the Cherokee and other tribes faced on their exodus to the west.
rotation in office This ideology held that in order to prevent government officials from becoming intoxicated by the powers of political office they should be changed on a periodic basis.
Indian Removal Act In 1830, Congress passed this legislation, in which native Americans were forced to move out of cotton rich areas in South and move to Oklahoma Territory.
Panic of 1837 This depression occurred at the beginning of Van Buren’s Presidency. Many people lost their savings, hundreds of business went bankrupt, and more than a third of the population was out of work.
spoils system This is the practice of giving political jobs as a reward for party loyalty.
Specie Circular This executive order mandated that federal land offices accept only gold and silver in payment for public land.
Second Seminole War From 1835 to 1842, the native Americans waged guerrilla warfare against the U.S. in this conflict, but were broken after their leader, Osceola, was seized.
Worcester v. Georgia This case was brought to the Supreme Court on the grounds that the Cherokee were an independent nation whose rights had been violated by the state. The state was not entitled to regulate the Cherokee or to invade their lands.
doctrine of nullification This philosophy, going all the way back to Jefferson and Madison, proposed that states have the right to declare a federal law void.
pet banks These institutions, loyal to Jackson, received the deposits of federal money which was removed from the BUS.
Whigs This political party was begun in 1834 by people who were angered by Jackson’s tactics and policies.
Second Bank of the United States In 1816, this financial institution was granted a twenty year charter to assist the government in fiscal business, to regulate banknote currency, and encourage business enterprise.
Tariff of Abominations This law which raised the tax on many imports from 25% to 37% was designed by members of Congress to embarrass President John Quincy Adams.
John C. Calhoun After the passage of the Missouri Compromise this man became convinced that the future of slavery required stronger states’ rights.
Created by: jim.haferman
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