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West/ Reconstruction

Unit 1 Reconstruction/ Western Movement

became President after Lincoln’s assassination President Johnson
Johnson, a native southerner, was sympathetic to The South
Johnson's Reconstruction Plan seen as too_____ by Radical Republicans as it forgave former Confederate leaders and allowed them to vote and hold office lenient
Passed by the Radical Republicans in 1867; Former Confederate officials could not vote or hold office, Southern state constitutions had to include the 14th Amendment, African Americans had to be guaranteed the right to vote Reconstruction Act
Govt. agency that helped freed slaves by providing: food/clothing, jobs, medical care and education Freedmen’s Bureau
Reconstruction Amendments abolished slavery 13th
Reconstruction Amendments granted citizenship to persons born or naturalized in US as well as equal protection under the law 14th
Reconstruction Amendments gave freedmen the right to VOTE 15th
a system of renting and farming a piece land where land owner would often provide seed, fertilizer and tools sharecropping
Who would be paid with a SHARE of the crop at harvest time? landowner
What became widespread after Reconstruction into the 20th century? sharecropping
Who did the sharecropping? African Americans and poor whites throughout South
Sharecropping created a cycle of____ for many southern blacks because they did not earn enough cash for their crops to pay off their debts poverty
Sharecropping is sometimes called "_______” by another name slavery
a slang term many southerners called northerners who moved South after the Civil War; some helped but many profited from the impoverished conditions Carpetbagger
issued Emancipation Proclamation (1863) President Lincoln
did not want to punish South after the Civil War; urged for reconciliation after the Civil War along with_________ Robert E. Lee
Lincoln's Reconstruction Plan: only ___% of southern voter had to take an oath of loyalty to the U.S. and slavery had to be abolished 10%
laws put in place in the South during the early years after the Civil War that severely limited the rights of freedmen Black Codes
Who in Congress were outraged, took charge of Reconstruction and threw out these laws known as Black Codes Radical Republicans
Reconstruction Plans Chronology Ten Percent Plan (Lincoln, 1863) Wade-Davis Bill (1864) Johnson Plan (1865) Reconstruction Act (1867)
a landmark Supreme Court decision in which the Court ruled that segregation was legal as long as facilities for blacks and whites were equal Plessy v. Ferguson (1896)
What became known as the concept of “separate but equal” segregation
After Reconstruction, southern states put these 3 measures in place as a way to stop blacks from exercising their right to vote: Poll Taxes, Literacy Tests and Grandfather Clauses
unfair laws that required a fee to vote; used the economic status of African Americans against them (most had very little money) Poll Taxes
required voters to read and explain difficult sections of the constitution (many African American in South had little to no education) Literacy Test
further discriminated against southern blacks by giving exemptions to literacy tests to those whose fathers/grandfathers could vote on or before Jan. 1867; only whites could vote at that time Grandfather Clauses
Laws created in the South that legally separated the races; aka - segregation Jim Crow Laws
Give 5 examples of places that were segregated separate schools, restrooms, water fountains, restaurants, movie theaters
Republican Rutherford B Hayes was elected in 1876; removes all federal troops in southern states, and marks the end of which time period in U.S. History End of Reconstruction
giving 160 acres to anyone who paid a small filing fee, lived on the land for 5 years, farmed it and made some improvements to it Homestead Act
US government gave away thousands of acres of unassigned land in “Indian Territory” in a race held on April 22, 1889 Oklahoma Land Rush
booming population back east led for high demand for beef which led to increase prices which led to high profits for cattle ranchers Cattle Boom
Who had to “drive” the cattle over 1000 miles from Texas into the railheads of Kansas where the cattle would be transported to Chicago for processing and distribution Cowboys
These animals were chosen for their ability to travel long distances with little water while feeding on the prairie grass Texas Longhorn cattle
What 2 things brought about the end to the cattle boom? Barbed wire fences blocked off trails Railroads near ranches: no need for cowboys
300 Lakota killed while in the process of surrendering at a Creek on Lakota Reservation Massacre at Wounded Knee (1890)
Geronimo was finally__________ in 1886, marking the end of formal warfare between whites and Indians in the West captured
Geronimo was the great Apache Warrior who led attacks against ______________ and _________ soldiers Mexican and American soldiers
Considered the last great Indian aggressor to the U.S. Geronimo
4 Reasons for Westward Expansion opportunities for land ownership technological advancement (e.g. Transcontinental RR) possibility of great wealth new beginning for former slaves
a rich vein of gold or silver a lode
What famous lode was $400 million worth of silver found in Virginia City, NV Comstock Lode (1859)
What would spring up near silver or gold mines; some become ghost towns when mine “dries” up boomtowns
houses made of (grass) due to lack of lumber on plains sod houses
protected farmers’ crops from being trampled by cattle and sheep barbedwire
tougher than old wooden plows; could break through Great Plains sod steel plow
used to bring up water that lay deep beneath the surface windmills
a method used to cut grass or mulch to keep soil moist during dry weather dry farming
What railroad started from Omaha, NE Union Pacific
What railroad started from Sacramento, CA; Central Pacific
Where did the two railroads meet? Promontory Point, UT
This railroad was completed in May, 1869 when the Union and Central Pacific railroad were joined together Transcontinental Railroad
Three benefits of the Transcontinental Railroad faster, cheaper transportation out West, improved communication
Name 9 major RR cities: San Francisco, LA, Portland, Seattle, Santa Fe, Dodge City, Denver, Kansas City, Chicago
US government made treaties with Native Americans then broke them after ________ was discovered on Indian ancestral land gold or other precious resources
US government often renegotiated a new treaty with American Indians and tried to get them to move to ____________ a much smaller piece of land “reserved” for them (reservations)
What are 3 ways Native Americans reacted to movement to reservations Cooperated, fled, fought against the U.S. government
By the turn of the 20th century, the fighting between Native Americans and the US government ended, resulting in____ all remaining Indians being moved to reservations
Treaty w/ Sioux Nation that promised money, animal and tools if Sioux would stay on reserved land Broken when gold discovered - Pikes Peak, CO (1858) Fort Laramie Treaty (1851)
200 Cheyenne Indians slaughtered while surrendering Sand Creek Massacre (1864)
gold discovered in Black Hills of South Dakota Native American forces defeat and kill General Custer and 225 of his men Battle of Little Bighorn (1876)
Who led Native American forces defeating and killing General Custer and 225 of his men Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse
leader of Nez Perces Indians of Pacific Northwest Chief Joseph
Chief Joseph decides to ____rather than go onto reservation and leads his people on nearly 1500 mile journey in an attempt to escape to Canada flee
What was discovered on Nez Perces reservation gold
The Nez Perce and Chief Joseph surrender and are captured 42 miles from the _________ border Canadian
Chief Joseph's famous quote “I’m tired of fighting…”
Created by: andrea_tavenner



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