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Genetic unit vocab

TermDefinition
Heredity The passing of traits from parents to offspring.
Trait a genetically determined characteristic.
Purebred an animal bred from parents of the same breed or variety.
Hybrid the offspring of two plants or animals of different species or variety
Offspring the product of the reproductive process of an animal. A child
Gene A gene is a locus of DNA
Alleles An allele is a variant form of a gene.
Dominant The first allele is dominant and the second allele is recessive.
Recessive a trait or gene.
Phenotype the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits
Genotype is that part (DNA sequence) of the genetic makeup of a cell
Homozygous When an individual has two of the same allele, whether dominant or recessive
Heterozygous A diploid organism is heterozygous at a gene locus when its cells contain two different alleles of a gene.
Codominance is a relationship between two versions of a gene
Meiosis sister chromatids to form haploid gametes. Male and female gametes fuse during fertilization
Haploid cells A cell that is the result of meiosis and has half the number of chromosomes as the original cell.
Diploid cells A cell that is the result of mitosis and has the same number of chromosomes as the original cell.
Mutations the changing of the structure of a gene
Insertion a thing that is inserted, in particular.
Deletion the loss or absence of a section from a nucleic acid molecule or chromosome.
Substitution the action of replacing someone or something with another person or thing.
Sex-linked gene A gene located on a sex chromosome, usually the X-chromosome.
Carrier a person or thing that carries, holds, or conveys something.
Sex chromosome a chromosome involved with determining the sex of an organism, typically one of two kinds.
Genetic disorder An often-inherited medical condition caused by an abnormality in DNA.
Pedigree the record of descent of an animal, showing it to be purebred.
Selective breeding is the process by which humans use animal breeding and plant breeding
Inbreeding breed from closely related people or animals, especially over many generations.
Hybridization is the process of combining two complementary single-stranded DNA or RNA molecules
Clone an organism or cell, or group of organisms or cells, produced asexually from one ancestor or stock, to which they are genetically identical.
Genetic Engineering the deliberate modification of the characteristics of an organism by manipulating its genetic material.
Gene therapy the transplantation of normal genes into cells in place of missing or defective ones in order to correct genetic disorders.
fertilization a new organism begins to form when egg and sperm join in the process
purebred is the offspring of many generations that have the same trait
gene the factors that control a trait
alleles the different forms of a gene
dominant alleles is one whose trait always shows up in the organism when the allele is present
recessive allele is hidden whenever the dominant allele present
probability is a number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur
punnett square is a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
Created by: Shazzykid