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CHAPTER 8 NOTES

QuestionAnswer
Confucius (551-479 B.C.E.) Educator and political advisor
Confucian ideas moral and ethical in character use to restore political and social order
Ren a sense of humanity, kindness, benevolence
Li a sense of propriety, courtesy, respect, deference to elders
Xiao filial piety, familial obligation Cultivate personal morality and junzi for bringing order to China
Mencius (372-289 B.C.E.) a spokesman for the Confucian school that believed in the goodness of human nature (ren) and Advocated government by benevolence and humanity
Xunzi (298-238 B.C.E.) he had a less positive view of human nature and believed that humans selfishly pursue own interests and preferred harsh social discipline to bring order to society and to advocated moral education and good public behavior
Daoism featured prominent critics of Confucian activism
Laozi founder of Daoism, allegedly wrote the Daodejing (Classic of the Way and of Virtue)
The Dao the way of nature, the way of the cosmospassive and yielding,ambition and activism had only brought the world to chaos
Legalism doctrine of practical and efficient statecraft,no concern with ethics ,morality,and with the principles
Shang Yang (ca. 390-338 B.C.E.) chief minister of Qin and Legalist writer
Han Feizi (ca. 280-233 B.C.E.) synthesized Legalist ideas in essays
Legalist doctrine the strength was in agriculture and military force, and discouraged commerce, education, and the arts , Called for harsh penalties even for minor infractions,etc.
Qin dynasty located in west China, adopted Legalist policies , agriculture was a strong economy ,had a powerful army and conquered other states and unified China in 221 B.C.E
Qin Shihuangdi the first emperor of Qin Established centralized imperial rule
The collapse of the Qin dynasty Waves of rebels overwhelmed the Qin court in 207 B.C.E.
Han dynasty adopted Legalist policies,burrocracy ,production of iron and salt,agriculture,trade ,taxes,etc.
Han imperial expansion Invaded and colonized northern Vietnam and Korea
Productivity and prosperity Iron metallurgy: farming tools, utensils, and weapons,Silk textiles,Paper production,Population growth,Patriarchal social structure,
Economic and social difficulties Raised taxes and confiscated land of some wealthy individuals and Taxes and land confiscations discouraged investment in manufacture and trade
later Han dynasty (25-220 C.E.) revolt due to problems of land distribution
Collapse of the Han Factions at court paralyzed the central government and China was divided into regional kingdoms
Created by: StephanieJ3102
 

 



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