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Test 2

Materials and Processes

There are three methods of metalworking: Hot working, cold working, and extruding
Almost all steel is hot worked from the ingot into some form from which it is either Hot or cold worked to a finished shape
Forging of steel is a mechanical working at temperatures above the critical range to shape the metal as desired
Pressing is used when the parts to be forged are large and heavy; this process also replaces hammering where high grade steel is required
Hammering can be used only on relatively small pieces. Since hammering transmits its force almost instantly, its effect is limited to a small depth
Steel is often harder than necessary and too brittle for most practical uses when put under severe internal strain. To relieve such strain and reduce brittleness, it is tempered after being hardened
Annealing consists of heating the metal to a prescribed temperature, holding it for a specific length of time, then cooling the metal back to room temperature. To produce max. softness, the metal must be cooled very slowly
The tensile strength of a material is its resistance to a force which tends to pull it apart
In the heat treatment of aluminum alloys, only two processes are included: the hardening and toughening process, and the softening process
Heat treatment is a series of operations involving the heating and cooling of metals in the solid state
The most common forms of heat treatment for ferrous metals are hardening, tempering, normalizing, annealing, and case hardening
A pure metal cannot be hardened by heat treatment because there is little change in its structure when heated
The temperature of the furnace must be held constant during the soaking period, since it is during this period that rearrangement of the internal structure of steel takes place
The rate of cooling through the critical range determines the form that the steel will retain
Quenching solutions act only through their ability to ___ cool the steel
Brine usually is made of a 5 to 10 percent solution of salt (sodium chloride) in water. In addition to its greater cooling speed, brine has the ability to throw the scale from steel during the quenching process
The tendency of steel to warp and crack during the quenching process is difficult to overcome because certain parts of the article cool more rapidly than other
The first important consideration in the heat treatment of a steel part is to know its chemical composition
Changing the internal structure of a ferrous metal is accomplished by heating to a temp. above its upper critical point, holding it at that temp. for a time sufficient to permit certain internal changes to occur, and then cooling to atmospheric temp under predetermined, controlled conditions
Pure iron, wrought iron, and extremely low carbon steels cannot be appreciably hardened by heat treatment, since they contain no hardening element
In plain carbon steel, the maximum hardness depends almost entirely on the carbon content of the steel
For most steels, the hardening treatment consists of heating the steel to a temperature just above the upper critical point, soaking or holding for the required length of time, and then cooling it rapidly by plunging the hot steel into oil, water, or brine
Tempering always follows, never precedes, the hardening operation. In addition to reducing brittleness, tempering softens the steel
Annealing of steel produces a fine grained, soft, ductile metal without internal stresses or strains. In the annealed state, steel has its lowest strength
The normalizing of steel removes the internal stresses set up by heat treating, welding, casting, forming, or machining
Casehardening produces a hard wear-resistant surface or case over a strong, tough core
Carburizing is a casehardening process in which carbon is added to the surface of low carbon steel. Thus, a carburized steel has a high carbon surface and a low carbon interior
Nitriding is unlike other casehardening processes in that, before nitriding, the part is heat treated to produce definite physical properties. Thus, parts are hardened and tempered before being nitrided
The most widely used alloys in aircraft construction are hardened by heat treatment rather than by cold work
The terms “Alclad and Pureclad” are used to designate sheets that consist of an aluminum alloy core coated with a layer of pure aluminum to a depth of 5.5%
When solution heat treating 2017 or 2024 sheet material, the elapsed time must not exceed 10 seconds
The heat-treatable aluminum alloys are subdivided into two classes: those that obtain their full strength at room temp and those that require artificial aging
Refrigeration retards the rate of natural aging. At 32 °F, the beginning of the aging process is delayed for several hours, while dry ice (−50 °F to −100 °F) retards aging for an extended period of time
Annealing procedure for aluminum alloys consists of heating the alloys to an elevated temp., holding/soaking at this temp. for a length of time depending upon the mass of the metal & then cooling in still air. Annealing leaves the metal in best condition for cold working
Alloy 2017/2024 are hi-strength rivets suitable for use w/ aluminum alloy structures. Purchased from the manufacturer in the heat-treated condition. Since the aging characteristics of these alloys are at room temp. they are unfit for driving, they must be reheated just before they are to be used
The Brinell hardness tester uses a hardened spherical ball, which is forced into the surface of the metal
The Rockwell hardness tester measures the _________, as does the Brinell tester. resistance to penetration
They are referred to as nondestructive inspection (NDI) or nondestructive testing (NDT). The objective of NDI and NDT is to determine the airworthiness of a component without damaging it, which would render it unairworthy
Visual inspection can be enhanced by looking at the suspect area with a bright light, a magnifying glass, and mirror
A borescope is a device that enables the inspector to see inside areas that could not otherwise be inspected without dissassembly
Penetrant inspection is a nondestructive test for defects open to the surface in parts made of any nonporous material
Electromagnetic analysis is a term which describes the broad spectrum of electronic test methods involving the intersection of magnetic fields and circulatory currents. The most widely used technique is the eddy current
Ultrasonic detection equipment makes it possible to locate defects in all types of materials
There are three basic ultrasonic inspection methods: pulse echo, transmission, resonance
Magnetic particle inspection is a method of detecting invisible cracks and other defects in ferromagnetic materials such as iron and steel. It is not applicable to nonmagnetic materials
The following types of discontinuities are normally detected by the magnetic particle test:_______ All of these may affect the reliability of parts in service. cracks, laps, seams, cold shuts, inclusions, splits, tears, pipes, and voids
Magnaglo inspection is similar to the preceding method but differs in that a fluorescent particle solution is used and the inspection is made _ under black light
The permanent magnetism remaining after inspection must be removed by a demagnetization operation if the part is to be returned to service. Parts of operating mechanisms must be demagnetized to prevent magnetized parts from attracting filings, grindings, or chips inadvertently left in the system, or steel particles resulting from operational wear
From the standpoint of quality assurance, radiographic interpretation is the most important phase of radiography. It is during this phase that an error in judgment can produce disastrous consequences
Composite structures should be inspected for delamination, debonding of the skin from core and evidence of moisture and corrosion
Tap testing, also referred to as the ring test or coin test, is widely used as a quick evaluation of any accessible surface to detect the presence of delamination or debonding
A properly designed joint weld is ____________ which it joins. stronger than the base
Penetration is the depth of fusion in a weld. Thorough fusion is the most important characteristic contributing to a sound weld. Penetration is affected by the thickness of the material to be joined, the size of filler rod, and how its added
Normalizing applies to iron base metals only. Normalizing consists of heating the part to the proper temperature, holding it at that temperature until it is uniformly heated, and then cooling it in still air. Normalizing is used to relieve the stress in metals
Created by: Jerome19505



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