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AP US History Chpt 9

Confederation & Constitution

TermDefinition
Abigail Adams inspired by the revolution and the promise of democracy, she advocated for more equality for women, including political rights
Anti-federalists Opponents of the 1787 Constitution, they cast the document as anti-democratic, objected to the subordination of the states to the central government, and feared encroachment on individuals’ liberties in the absence of a bill of rights.
Articles of Confederation (1781) established the United States as a loose confederation of states under a weak national Congress, which was not granted the power to regulate commerce or collect taxes; were replaced by a more efficient Constitution in 1789.
Civic Virtue Willingness on the part of citizens to sacrifice personal self-interest for the public good. Deemed a necessary component of a successful republic
Civic Law Body of written law enacted through legislative statutes or constitutional provisions. judges must apply the statutes precisely as written.
Common Law Laws that originate from court rulings and customs, as opposed to legislative statutes. The Constitution grew out of the Anglo-American tradition and thus provided only a general organizational framework for the new federal government.
Disestablished To separate an official state church from its connection with the government. Following the Revolution, all states broke from the Anglican Church, though some N.E. states maintained established Congregational Churches into the nineteenth century.
Federalists Proponents of the 1787 Constitution, they favored a strong national government, arguing that the checks and balances in the new Constitution would safeguard the people’s liberties.
Great Compromise the measure which reconciled NJ and Virginia plans at the constitutional convention, giving states proportional representation in the House and equal representation in the Senate. Led to subsequent negotiations over slavery and the Electoral College.
Land Ordinance of 1785 Provided for the sale of land in the Old Northwest and earmarked the proceeds toward repaying the national debt.
New Jersey Plan (1787) “Small-state plan” put forth at the Philadelphia convention, proposing equal representation by state, regardless of population, in a unicameral legislature. Small states feared that the more populous states would dominate under a proportional system.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787 Created a policy for administering the Northwest Territories. It included a path to statehood and forbade the expansion of slavery into the territories.
"Old Northwest" Territories acquired by the fed gov from the states, northwest of the Ohio R.& east of the Mississippi R., and south of the Great Lakes. management and sale of the land in the territories established a precedent for handling future land acquisitions.
Republican "motherhood" Ideal of family organization and female behavior after the American Revolution that stressed the role of women in guiding family members toward democratic virtues.
Shay's Rebellion Armed uprising of western Massachusetts debtors seeking lower taxes and an end to property foreclosures. Though quickly put down, the insurrection inspired fears of “mob rule” among leading Federalists.
Society of the Cincinnati Exclusive, hereditary organization of former officers in the Continental Army. Many former revolutionaries resented the pretentiousness of the order, viewing it as a vestige of pre-Revolutionary elitism contrary to republican ideals.
The Federalist Papers (1788) Collection of essays by John Jay, James Madison, and Alexander Hamilton and published during the ratification debate in New York to lay out their arguments in favor of the new Constitution; a source for constitutional interpretation issues
three-fifths compromise (1787) Determined that each slave would be counted as less than a person for the purpose of apportioning taxes and representation. The compromise granted disproportionate political power to Southern slave states.
Virginia Plan “Large state” proposal for the constitution, calling for proportional representation in both houses of a bicameral Congress; plan favored larger states and thus prompted smaller states to come back with alternative plan for apportioning representation.
Virginia Statute for Religious Freedom (1786) Measure enacted by the Virginia legislature prohibiting state support for religious institutions and recognizing freedom of worship. Served as a model for the religion clause of the first amendment to the Constitution.
Daniel Shays Revolutionary war veteran who led a group of debtors and impoverished backcountry farmers in a rebellion against the Massachusetts government in 1786, calling for paper money, lighter taxes, and an end to property seizures for debt.
Patrick Henry American revolutionary and champion of states’ rights, who became a prominent anti-federalist during the ratification debate, opposing what he saw as despotic tendencies in the new national constitution.
Thomas Jefferson composer of the Declaration of Independence and a staunch defender of state's rights and the Articles of Confederation
James Madison chief co-author of Federalist Papers that drummed up support for a strong central government in a series of NY paper articles
Alexander Hamilton cabinet secretary under Washington who bolstered the fledgling nation's credit by convincing Congress to take on each of the individual state's debt and pay off (funding at par) at face value
primogeniture the right of full inheritance that was granted to the eldest male heir
state sovereignty having the authority of self governance, such as coining money, raising armies, and erecting tariffs
mobocracy the term used to describe the fear of the propertied class that too much change was being demanded by the masses of the lower class
consent of the governed the idea taken from Paine that all governments derive their powers from the willingness of citizens to authorize them, within limits
electoral college the indirect method of electing the president established in the Constitution to protect against too much democracy
Created by: wm0397