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Gentic Unit Vocab

Genetic Unit Key Vocab

Heredity-The passing of traits from parents to offspring
2.Trait-A characteristic that an organism can pass on to its offspring through its genes
3.Purebred~when an organism has two of the same DNAs.
4.Hybrid~when an organism has two different DNAs
5.Offspring - the product of the reproductive process of an animal. A child
6.Gene-the set of information that controls a trait
7.Alleles-the different forms of a gene
8.Dominant~an allele whose traits always up in the organism when the allele is present
9.Recessive-an allele that is masked when a dominant allele is present
.Phenotype-an organism's physical appearance,or visible traits
11.Genotype-an organism's genetic makeup,or allele combinations
12.Homozygous-having two identical alleles for a trait
13.Heterozygous-having two different alleles for a trait
14.Codominance-a condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive
15.Meiosis-the process that occurs in the formation of sex cells
16.Haploid cells - A cell that is the result of meiosis and has half the number of chromosomes as the original cell.
17.Diploid cells - A cell that is the result of mitosis and has the same number of chromosomes as the original cell.
18.Mutations-a change in a gene or chromosome
19. Insertion-one base pair is added
20.Deletion-one base pair is removed .Deletion-one base pair is removed
21.Substitution- one base pair is substituted for another
22.Sex-linked gene-a gene that is carried on the X or Y chromosomes
23.Carrier-a person who has one recessive allele for a trait,but does not have the trait
24. Sex chromosome-a pair of chromosomes carrying genes that determine whether a person is male or female
25.Genetic disorder- an abnormal condition that a person inherits through genes or chromosomes
26. Pedigree-a chart or ¨family tree¨ that tracks which members of a family have a particular trait
27. Selective breeding-the process of selecting a few organism with desired traits to serve as parents of the next generation
28.Inbreeding-a selective breeding method in which two individuals with identical or similar sets of alleles are crossed
29. Hybridization-a selective breeding method in which two genetically different individuals are crossed
30. Clone-an organisms that is genetically identical to the organism from which it was produced
31.Genetic Engineering-the transfer of a gene from the DNA of one organism into another organism in order to produce an organism with desired traits
32.Gene therapy- the insertion of working copies of a gene into the cells of a person with a genetic disorder in an attempt to correct the disorder
33 - 40. You should add at least 8 additional words from chapters 4 & 5 . You should add at least 8 additional words from chapters 4 & 5
33. Punnett Square~ is a chart that shows all the possible combinations of alleles that can result from a genetic cross
34. Genetic Cross~the allele that each parent will pass on to its offspring is based on probability
35. Probability~is a number that describes how likely it is that an event will occur
36. Chromosomes~ made up of many genes joined together
37. karyotype~a picture of all the chromosomes in a cell
38. Genetic~ the scientific study of heredity
messenger RNA- copies the coded message from the DNA in the nucleus, and carries the message to ribosomes in the cytoplasm
Transfer RNA- carries amino acids to the ribosomes and adds them to the growing protein
Created by: kaylee_Scott