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Genetic unit vocab

genetic unit key vocabulary

TermDefinition
heredity mental characteristics genetically from one generation to another.
trait a characteristic that is caused by genetics
gene DNA that encodes a functional RNA or protein product, and is the molecular unit of heredity.
purebred from parents of the same breed or variety.
hybrid the result of mixing, through sexual reproduction, two animals or plants of different breeds, varieties, species or genera.
offspring the product of the reproductive process of an animal. A child
allele a variant form of a gene.
dominant a dominant trait or gene.
recessive a recessive trait or gene
phenotype the composite of an organism's observable characteristics or traits.
genotype DNA is used to make protein and RNA molecules.
homozygous When an individual has two of the same allele, whether dominant or recessive
heterozygous having one each of two different alleles.having one each of two different alleles.
codominace relationship between two versions of a gene. Individuals receive one version of a gene, called an allele
meiosis a type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes and plant spores.
haploid cells A cell that is the result of meiosis and has half the number of chromosomes as the original cell.
diploid cells A cell that is the result of mitosis and has the same number of chromosomes as the original cell.
mutations permanent change of the nucleotide sequence of the genome of an organism, virus, or extrachromosomal DNA or other genetic elements.
insertion the action of inserting something
deletion The loss or absence of a section from a nucleic acid molecule or chromosome
Substitution where one base pair is replaced by a different base pair. The term also refers to the replacement of one amino acid in a protein with a different amino acid.
sex-linked gene determines whether an individual is male or female. In humans and other mammals, the sex chromosomes are X and Y. Females have two X chromosomes, and males have an X and a Y.
carrier a person who has a recessive allele for a trait
sex chromosomes determines if it is a female or male
genetic disorder a condition that someone inherits a trait
pedigree a family tree
selective breeding The process of selecting genes
inbreeding Two identicals are crossed together
hybridization two differents are crossed together
clone Clones are organisms that are exact genetic copies. Every single bit of their DNA is identical.
genetic engineering The transfer of one gene to another
gene therapy copies of genes
heredity passing of physical characteristics from parents
trait a distinguishing quality or characteristic, typically one belonging to a person.
gene factor that controls traits
hybrid two different alleles for a trait
purebred an offspring for many generations
alleles different forms of genes
meiosis the process of cell division
offspring reproduction of a new organism produced by one or, in the case of sexual reproduction, two parents.
Created by: jmccartha12