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Products of AA Metab

USCSOM: Special products of Amino Acid Metabolism

What are the special products of AA metabolism? creatine, glycine conjugates, neurotransmitters, NO, purines, Heme
Where does creatine synthesis begin? kidney
Where does creatine synthesis end? liver
What are the first two reactants in creatine synthesis? Gly Arg
Gly and Arg combine to form what two products in creatine synthesis? Orn and guanidinoacetate
What two immediate reactants form creatine? guanidinoacetate and SAM
Creatine is phosphorylated to form creating phosphate via what enzyme? creatine phosphokinase
What is measured to determine muscle and brain cell damage? serum creatine phosphokinase levels (CK)
What kind of CK is found in the brain mostly? CK1, BB
What kind of CK is found primarily in the heart? CK2, MB
What kind of CK is found primarily in the skeletal muscle? CK3, MM
Many AAs are decarboxylated by reactions that require what enzyme? pyridoxal phosphate
Glutamate is decarboxylate to form what inhibitory neurotransmitter? GABA
Histidine is decarboxylated by PLP to form what? histamine
What is the physiological effect of histamine? vaso-dilation, broncho-constriction
The decarboxylation of ornathine produces what polyamine precrusor? putrescine
Putresence is a precursor to what two polyamines? spermine and spermidine
What is formed from the decarboxylation of Ser with Palmitoyl CoA? Sphingosine
What is formed from the decarboxylation of tryptophan? serotonin, melatonin, nicotinamide
What hormones are produced from the decarboxylation of Tyr? catecholamines
What is seratonins physiological function? vasoconstrictor and smooth mm contraction
What is the course from Trp to melatonin? Trp, 5-OH-Trp, Serotonin, N-Acetylserotonin, melatonin
What AA is the precursor for L-DOPA? Tyrosine
Tyrosine can be synthesized by what AA? phenylalanine
What is required to form Dopa from Tyr? tyr hydroxylase, BH4
What is required to form NorEpi from Dopamine? dopamine hydroxylase, copper, vitC
What is required to form Epi from NorEpi? SAM
What AA are directly neurotransmitters? Glu, Gly
What AA forms GABA? Glu
What AA forms catecholamines? Tyr
What AA forms serotonin? Trp
Catecholamines are deactivated by what three steps of degredation? oxidative deamination, oxidation, O-methylation
Oxidative deamination is catalyzed by what enzyme in the break down of catecholamines? monoamine oxidase (MAO)
What is COMT? chatecholamine O-methyl transferase
What AA precursor is involved in the synthesis of nitric oxide? Arg
NO synthase produces what two products from Arg? NO and Citrulline
NO synthase exists in what two tissue-specific forms? 1 - overproduction of NO in macrophages; 2 - vascular endothelium vasodilation
What are the cascade of effects from NO in smooth muscles cells? NO stimulates guanylate cyclase, produces cGMP, stimulates relaxation
What drug is frequently used by patients with angina pectoris? nitroglycerin
Created by: jlellerm
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