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Human Physiology

Exam 3

QuestionAnswer
gas exchange, regulation of blood pH, phonation, defense against microbes, trap and dissolve blood clots Functions of the Respiratory System
The respiratory system has the primary function of gas exchange.
moving oxygen into the body and carbon dioxide out of the body. gas exchange.
Oxygen moves in and carbon dioxide moves out. gas exchange.
Hair that lines the inside of nose filters out large particulate matter. Goblet cells trachea produce mucus to trap particles,& cilia lining the trachea beat upwards to pull mucus & particles up towards the pharynx where it is swallowed or coughed out. defense against microbes
cells in the body need a continuous supply of oxygen to do aerobic cellular respiration to make ATP
At any given time, the human body only has enough ATP stored to survive for 45 seconds
carbon dioxide is a by-product of aerobic cellular respiration,
refers to aerobic cellular respiration or the series of chemical reactions in which oxygen is used to convert food molecules into ATP with carbon dioxide as a side product. Internal respiration
the process of moving air to the tissues to be used in aerobic cellular respiration. External respiration
pulmonary ventilation,exchange of oxygen &carbon dioxide between alveoli & blood by diffusion, transportation of oxygen& carbon dioxide between lungs& tissues of the body by blood, exchange of oxygen &carbon dioxide between blood & tissues of the body External respiration
This is a part of internal respiration? aerobic cellular respiration to make ATP
air moves into the respiratory system through a pathway and then reverses direction and comes back out the same pathway backwards.air flow is tidal.
The external intercostal muscles pull up and out on the ribs when contracted to increase the volume of the thoracic cavity.
opening to the external environment Oral Cavity or Nasal Cavity
back of throat Pharynx
the energy molecule we use to do work in the body ATP
we could not maintain homeostasis without the constant influx of oxygen from the respiratory system
Oral Cavity or Nasal Cavity, Pharynx, Epiglottis, Glottis, Larynx, Trachea, Bronchi, Bronchioles,Terminal Bronchioles, Respiratory Bronchioles, Alveoli Pathway of Air Flow
Air flows from the oral cavity or nasal cavity to the _____ and then from the alveoli to get into the body alveoli to the oral or nasal cavity to get back out into the atmosphere.
fold of skin that covers glottis Epiglottis
opening of larynx Glottis
also called "voicebox" Larynx
20-25 mm and its length is 10 cm, held open even as pressure changes with air flow by 15-20 C-shaped bands of cartilage Trachea
Trachea divides into right and left, divide into secondarywithin the lungs, then divide into tertiary, contain cartilage. Bronchi
Bronchi divide into smaller tubes for 20-23 generations for a total of approximately 8 million tubules. conatin elastin fibers, but no cartilage, smallest are less than 0.5 mm in diameter.When the tubes become less than 1 mm in diameter, they are called: Bronchioles
These are the smallest tubes of the conducting zone that lead to the respiratory zone. Terminal Bronchioles
This is the first tube of the respiratory zone that leads to the alveoli which is the primary place of gas exchange Respiratory Bronchioles
can open off of respiratory bronchioles, but most occur in clusters called sacs.can be connected by pores which allow for lung pressure equilibration. The lungs contain approximately 300 million, surface area of 60-100 m2 about the size of a tennis court. Alveoli
The portion of the pathway from the oral cavity or nasal cavity to the terminal bronchioles is called the conducting zone
the portion of the pathway from the terminal bronchioles to the alveoli is called the respiratory zone
air temperature is modified to match body temperature, air humidity is modified to match body humidity, and air is filtered of particulate matter and microbes. conducting zone
gas exchange by diffusion occurs across type I alveolar cells that line the alveoli, the fused basement membranes of the alveoli and the capillaries, and the endothelial cells that make up the pulmonary capillary walls. respiratory zone
Together, these structures compose the "respiratory membrane" which is about 0.2 μm thick. conducting zone, respiratory zone
This short diffusion distance along with the extremely high surface area of the alveoli allows for very fast diffusion of gases
pull up and out on the ribs when contracted external intercostal muscles
pull down and in on the ribs when contracted. internal intercostal muscles
the home of inspiratory neurons and expiratory neurons. medulla oblongata
inspiratory neurons fire periodic bursts of action potentials travel down ext. intercostal nerves to ext intercostal muscles triggering contraction; travel down phrenic nerve to diaphragm to trigger contraction. Between bursts of APs, these muscles relax. quiet breathing
the expiratory neurons fire between the bursts of action potentials from the inspiratory neurons to travel down the internal intercostal nerve to the internal intercostal muscles to trigger contraction. active breathing
The external intercostal muscles pull up and out on the ribs when contracted to increase the volume of the thoracic cavity.
pressure of the air in the external environment.At sea this pressure is normally 760 mm Hg with slight variations due to weather. changes with altitude, but for all practical purposes on a moment-to-moment basis, pressure is a constant. Atmospheric pressure
the pressure of the air inside the alveoli. what humans change during each section of the ventilation cycle to cause changes in air flow. Intra-alveolar Pressure
pressure in pleural spce is fluid filled spce btwn membrne lining int surface of chest wall &membrane lining ext.surf of lungs.Opposing forces try to pull pleura apart, creates negative pressure helps keep lungs from recoiling &alveoli from collapsing. Intrapleural pressure
the difference between intrapleural pressure and intra-alveolar pressure. The bigger this pressure is, the bigger the distending pressure is on the alveoli which causes the alveoli to expand. Transpulmonary Pressure
Two equations describe air movement and the impetus for air movement during ventilation, the flow equation and Boyle's Law.
Aerobic cellular respiration to make ATP is a part of internal respiration
which muscles pull up and out on the ribs when contracted to increase the volume of the thoracic cavity external intercostal muscles
which pressure do humans change to affect air flow intra-alveolar pressure
What is the name of the volume of air that we breathe in or out during a normal breath tidal volume
what does IRV stand for Inspiratory Reserve Volume
What type of gas exchange is occurring between the alveoli and pulmonary capillaries oxygen is moving into blood and carbon dioxide is moving into alveoli
Featl hemoglobin has an oxygen-hemoglobin curve shifted to the left of normal adult hemoglobin
Increase in temperature will result in a Bohr effect
The partial pressure of oxygen in blood is determined by the free-floating or dissolved oxygen in the plasma
Which two particles are moved in the chloride shift chloride ions and bicarbonate
To what do central chemoreceptors respond? hydrogen ions
The partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the plasma of the blood of the pulmonary capillaries is higher than the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the alveoli, so carbon dioxide diffuses intothe alveoli.
bell shaped muscle that divides the thoracic cavity from from the abdominal cavity. diaphragm
means the pressure difference between the atmosphere and the alveoli pressure difference
the overall resistance to air flow in the entire set of tubes in the pulmonary system resistance
primaryily determined by by the radii of the tubes resistance to air flow
PV=nRT Boyle's law
Flow=pressure difference/resistance flow equation
Passive forces exerted on the airways, contractile activityof smooth muscle in the tubes, secretion of mucus into the airways Factors that affect resistance
air flows down its pressure gradient from an area of high pressure to low pressure
pressure that stays more or less the same on a moment to moment basis atmospheric pressure
we manipulate the difference in pressure between the alveoli and the atmosphere which allows us to control air flow or to ventilate. By changing the alveolar pressure,
if atmospheric presure is higher than alveolar pressure, then air flows from the higher pressure in the atmosphere to the lower pressure in the alveoli, flow is positive, and we inhale.
If atmospheric pressure is lower than alveolar pressure, then air flows from the higher pressure in the alveoli to the lower pressure in the atmosphere, flow is negative, and we exhale.
describes the relationship between volume and pressure. if nRT is a constant, then PV is a constant. if V increases, P must decrease to keep product the same. if V decreases, then P must increase to keep product the same. P and V are inversely proportion Boyle's Law
the medullary inspiratory neurons fire a burst of action potentials to send a signal down the phrenic nerve to the diaphragm and the external intercostal nerves to the external intercostal muscles. Quiet breathing / inspiration
The diaphragm contracts which shortens the muscle and increases the volume of the thoracic cavity. Quiet breathing / inspiration
The external intercostal muscles contract to pull up and out on the ribs and increase the volume of the thoracic cavity. Quiet breathing / inspiration
The increase in volume of the thoracic cavity causes a decrease in pressure in the alveoli to below atmospheric pressure. Quiet breathing / inspiration
Air flows down its pressure gradient from outside in the atmosphere to inside the alvoeli, and we inhale. Quiet breathing / inspiration
the medullary inspiratory neurons stop having action potentials so stop sending signals down the phrenic nerve to the diaphragm and down the external intercostal nerves to the external intercostal muscles. Quiet breathing/ expiration
The diaphragm relaxes and lengthens to bow back up into the thoracic cavity and reduce the volume. Quiet breathing/ expiration
The external intercostal muscles relax and allow the ribs to fall back down and decrease the volume of the thoracic cavity. Quiet breathing/ expiration
The decrease in volume of the thoracic cavity causes an increase in pressure in the alveoli to above atmospheric pressure. Quiet breathing/ expiration
Air flows down its pressure gradient from inside the alveoli to outside in the atmosphere, and we exhale. Quiet breathing/ expiration
the medullary inspiratory neurons fire a burst of action potentials to send a signal down the phrenic nerve to the diaphragm and the external intercostal nerves to the external intercostal muscles. active breathing / inspiration
The diaphragm contracts which shortens the muscle and increases the volume of the thoracic cavity. active breathing / inspiration
The external intercostal muscles contract to pull up and out on the ribs and increase the volume of the thoracic cavity. active breathing / inspiration
The increase in volume of the thoracic cavity causes a decrease in pressure in the alveoli to below atmospheric pressure. active breathing / inspiration
Air flows down its pressure gradient from outside in the atmosphere to inside the alvoeli, and we inhale. active breathing / inspiration
the medullary inspiratory neurons stop having action potentials so stop sending signals down the phrenic nerve to the diaphragm and down the external intercostal nerves to the external intercostal muscles. active breathing / expiration
The diaphragm relaxes and lengthens to bow back up into the thoracic cavity and reduce the volume. active breathing / expiration
The external intercostal muscles relax and allow the ribs to fall back down and decrease the volume of the thoracic cavity. active breathing / expiration
The decrease in volume of the thoracic cavity causes an increase in pressure in the alveoli to above atmospheric pressure. active breathing / expiration
Air flows down its pressure gradient from inside the alveoli to outside in the atmosphere, and we exhale. active breathing / expiration
At the same time, the medullary expiratory neurons fire a burst of action potentials to send a signal through the internal intercostal nerve to the internal intercostal muscles. active breathing / expiration
The internal intercostal muscles contract to pull down and in on the ribs to further decrease the volume of the thoracic cavity. active breathing / expiration
This increases the pressure even more in the alveoli to cause even more outflow of air. active breathing / expiration
During inspiration, the internal intercostal muscles relax. active breathing / expiration
Lung volumes and capacities are measured with the technique of spirometry.
the amount of air moved during a normal breath. Tidal volume
The extra amount that you can inhale in a big breath over and above what you can normally inhale with a normal breath is called inspiratory reserve volume.
The extra air that you can exhale with a big breath over and above what you can normally exhale is called the expiratory reserve volume.
The air left in the lungs after a big exhalation is called the reserve volume.
amount of tidal volume 500 mL
amount of Inspiratory Reserve Volume 3000 mL
amount of Expiratory Reserve Volume 1000 mL
amount of Residual Volume 1200 mL
Inspiratory Capacity 3500 mL
Vital Capacity 4500 mL
Functional Residual Capacity 2200 mL
Total Lung Capacity 5700 mL
measures the amount of air that actually does gas exchange in one minute. Alveolar ventilation
the total amount of air that flows into or out of the respiratory system in one minute minute ventilation
states that the partial pressures of gases are independent of each other. Dalton's Law
states that the diffusion of gases into a liquid is proportional to the partial pressure of those gases. Henry's law
Why do we care about Henry's Law? We care because it describes the movement of oxygen (a gas) into blood (a liquid) from air (a gas) and the movement of carbon dioxide (a gas) from blood (a liquid) into air (a gas).
Oxygen diffuses from alveoli to blood in pulmonary capillaries, from blood in tissue capillaries to tissues.
Carbon dioxide diffuses from tissues to blood in tissues capillaries, blood in pulmonary capillaries to alveoli.
Gas exchange in and out of blood always occurs across a capillary.
About 2.5% of the oxygen in the blood is dissolved or "free-floating in the plasma.
97.5% of oxygen in blood is carried bound to hemoglobin molecules.
The hemoglobin molecule has four heme subunits that each contain an iron atom.
Each iron atom can attract one oxygen molecule (O2) which means that a single hemoglobin molecule can bind to four oxygen molecules.
Hemoglobin bound to oxygen is called "oxyhemoglobin"
hemoglobin that is not bound to oxygen is called "deoxyhemoglobin".
Percent hemoglobin saturation can be determined by dividing the oxygen bound to hemoglobin by the maximum capacity of hemoglobin to bind to oxygen and multiplying by 100.
Blood travels back to the heart and is carried out to tissue capillaries through arteries and arterioles.
The primary functions of the digestive system are the acquisition, digestion, and absorption of food molecules that can then be used for both energy and building blocks for the entire body.
Energy comes from the organic molecules that we consume.
Carbohydrates: 4 Kcal/gram Fats: 9 Kcal/gram Proteins: 4 Kcal/gram organic molecules
What should we eat to get the proper amounts of energy and the proper number of building blocks to maintain homeostasis in the human body? Carbohydrates: 250-800 g/day; 2/3 starch, 1/3 (sucrose & lactose) Fats: 25-160 g/day Proteins: 40-50 g/day
The two basic processes that occur in the digestive system are digestion and absorption
the breakdown of food either mechanically or chemically digestion
the movement of food from the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract into the blood or lymph fluid. absorption
All food undergoes both mechanical and chemical digestion.
the process of physically separating two different food molecules to increase the surface area of food for an increase in the efficiency of chemical digestion. Mechanical digestion
An example of mechanical digestion is chewing.
occurs when a single molecule of a food substance is broken down into smaller molecules that can be moved across the wall of the intestine in absorption. Chemical digestion
catalyze the chemical reactions that break apart food molecules. Enzymes
The innermost layer closest to the lumen of the tube is the mucosa
composed of 3 layers Mucosa:
composed of epithelial cells called "enterocytes", absorptive cells, and endocrine cells including goblet cells that secrete mucous and endocrine cells that secrete hormones mucous membrane:
contains connective tissue that includes blood vessels, nerves, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodules, and Peyer's patches. lamina propria:
smooth muscle that contracts the mucosa into folds to stir the lumenal contents and promote contact between the digested material and the mucosal surface. muscularis mucosae
thick layer of connective tissue that provides the intestinal tract with much of its distensibility and elasticity; contains Meissner's (submucosal) plexus Submucosa:
two layers of smooth muscle and the Myenteric (Averbach's) plexus; The layer of circular muscle is used for lengthening and narrowing the tube and the layer of longitudinal muscle is used for shortening and widening the tube. Muscularis Externa:
contains two layers of connective tissue; The inner layer is composed of fibrous connective tissue for structural support. The mesothelium is continuous with the mesenteries and secretes a watery fluid for lubrication. Serosa (Adventitia):
Chewing or "mastication" provides the first bit of mechanical digestion. Mouth and Pharynx:
add saliva to food. Three pairs of salivary glands
Saliva contains mucous to lubricate food to facilitate swallowing, water to break ionic bonds in food substances to facilitate taste, and salivary amylase to start the digestion of carbohydrates.
the tube that leads from the mouth to the stomach. Esophagus
The esophagus undergoes peristaltic movements to help move food along the path.
composed of three parts: the fundus, the body, and the antrum The stomach
Parietal cells in the lining of the stomach secrete HCl to solubilize food, kill microbes, and activate pepsinogen to pepsin.
also secrete intrinsic factor which is a protein that binds to vitamin B12 and allows it to be absorbed across the intestine wall. Parietal cells
secrete pepsinogen which gets converted to the active enzyme pepsin which breaks peptide bonds in long polypeptides to make shorter polypeptides. Chief cells
secrete mucous to protect the stomach lining from the gastric fluid which can have a pH below 1. In response to food, endocrine cells secrete gastrin which regulates acid secretion and muscle contraction. Mucous secreting cells
3 pairs, start chemical digestion of polysaccharides in mouth, secrete mucous for lubrication, and add water to food to aid in taste salivary glands:
secretes bicarbonate to neutralize acid from stomach, secretes bile for the emulsification of fats, produces fibrinogen, synthesizes many proteins, cholesterol metabolism, endocrine function liver:
stores and concentrates bile between meals gall bladder:
secretes bicarbonate and digestive enzymes into small intestine pancreas:
smooth muscle that contracts the mucosa into folds to stir the lumenal contents and promote contact between the digested material and the mucosal surface. muscularis mucosae
thick layer of connective tissue that provides the intestinal tract with much of its distensibility and elasticity; contains Meissner's (submucosal) plexus Submucosa:
two layers of smooth muscle and the Myenteric (Averbach's) plexus; The layer of circular muscle is used for lengthening and narrowing the tube and the layer of longitudinal muscle is used for shortening and widening the tube. Muscularis Externa:
contains two layers of connective tissue; The inner layer is composed of fibrous connective tissue for structural support. The mesothelium is continuous with the mesenteries and secretes a watery fluid for lubrication. Serosa (Adventitia):
Chewing or "mastication" provides the first bit of mechanical digestion. Mouth and Pharynx:
add saliva to food. Three pairs of salivary glands
Saliva contains mucous to lubricate food to facilitate swallowing, water to break ionic bonds in food substances to facilitate taste, and salivary amylase to start the digestion of carbohydrates.
the tube that leads from the mouth to the stomach. Esophagus
The esophagus undergoes peristaltic movements to help move food along the path.
composed of three parts: the fundus, the body, and the antrum The stomach
Parietal cells in the lining of the stomach secrete HCl to solubilize food, kill microbes, and activate pepsinogen to pepsin.
also secrete intrinsic factor which is a protein that binds to vitamin B12 and allows it to be absorbed across the intestine wall. Parietal cells
secrete pepsinogen which gets converted to the active enzyme pepsin which breaks peptide bonds in long polypeptides to make shorter polypeptides. Chief cells
secrete mucous to protect the stomach lining from the gastric fluid which can have a pH below 1. In response to food, endocrine cells secrete gastrin which regulates acid secretion and muscle contraction. Mucous secreting cells
3 pairs, start chemical digestion of polysaccharides in mouth, secrete mucous for lubrication, and add water to food to aid in taste salivary glands:
secretes bicarbonate to neutralize acid from stomach, secretes bile for the emulsification of fats, produces fibrinogen, synthesizes many proteins, cholesterol metabolism, endocrine function liver:
stores and concentrates bile between meals gall bladder:
secretes bicarbonate and digestive enzymes into small intestine pancreas:
Movement of food through the GI tract is accomplished via peristalsis.
the alternate contraction of circular and longitudinal muscles to create "waves" of contraction through the intestine to push food along the path. Peristalsis
The functions of the excretory system include: elimination of waste materials regulation of body fluid volume regulation of fluid ion concentrations regulation of pH of plasma
Blood flows through the kidneys where urine is removed from the blood.
Urine moves from the kidneys into the renal pelvis and then into the ureters where it travels to the urinary bladder for storage until it is eliminated from the body through the urethra.
Urine is formed inside the kidney in structures called nephrons.
Two types of nephrons exist- cortical an juxtamedullary.
account for about 85-90% of nephrons Cortical nephrons
account for about 10-15% of nephrons juxtamedullary nephrons
The pathway of urine formation is: glomerulus, Bowman's capsule, proximal convoluted tubule: , loop of Henle, distal convoluted tubule, collecting duct:, ureter, urinary bladder, urethra
capillary beds at the front of each nephron from which plasma is filtered to begin the formation of urine. These are highly porous capillaries that allow the movement of protein-free plasma out of the capillary where it can move into the Bowman's capsule. glomerulus
a cup-shaped structure or blind pouch that leads into the nephron. Bowman's capsule
extends off the Bowman's capsule formed by a single layer of cuboidal epithelium that can actively reabsorb many things such as glucose, amino acids, sodium, chloride, and water from the filtrate and move them into the peritubular capillaries. Only 35% of proximal convoluted tubule
is made of simple squamous epithelial cells which are permeable to water but impermeable to salt, so more water is reabsorbed out of the filtrate and the filtrate becomes more concentrated in the descending limb. The descending limb of the loop of Henle
made of cuboidal and low columnar epithelial cells which are permeable to salt but not to water, so more solutes are removed from the filtrate and the filtrate becomes dilute. The ascending limb of the loop of Henle
made of cuboidal epithelial cells. The primary function is the secretion of some solutes back into the filtrate. distal convoluted tubule
collect urine from many nephrons and carry it towards the renal pelvis. Some reabsorption and secretion occur here. collecting duct
carry urine to the urinary bladder. ureter
holds urine until it is excreted from the body. The urinary bladder
Urination or micturition is both under voluntary and involuntary control.
the tube through which urine leaves the body. urethra
excretion = filtration + secretion - reabsorption This equation says that what comes out of the body is equal to what is moved from blood to the urine by filtration at the glomerulus/ Bowman's capsule interface plus whatever is actively transported out of blood into urine at the peritubular capillary/ ne
the bulk-flow of protein-free plasma from the glomerular capillaries into the Bowman's capsule to form an ultrafiltrate that is not yet urine. Filtration
The average glomerular filtration rate (GFR) is about 125 ml/min or 180 L/day.
both passive and active movement of substances such as water, glucose, amino acids, vitamins, bicarbonate ions, and the chloride salts of potassium, sodium, calcium, from the filtrate in the nephron back into the blood in the peritubular capillaries. Reabsorption
movement by active transport of substances such as ammonia, hydrogen ions, potassium, and some drugs from the blood in the peritubular capillaries that surround the nephron to the filtrate inside the nephron. Secretion
achieved both by intrinsic (within the kidneys) factors and extrinsic (outside the kidneys) factors Regulation of kidney function is
Systemic Blood Pressure:Aldosterone, Atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP), Antidiuretic hormone (ADH): Extrinsic Factors
work by negative feedback loops to maintain homeostasis in the system. extrinsic factors
the functional unit of a kidney nephron
elimination of wastes, regulation of body fluid, regulation of fluid ion concentration functions of excretory system
what does an increase in aldosterone cause vasoconstriction and increased reabsorption of sodium ions
what is the name of the tube that leads from the urinary bladder to the outside of the body urethra
which substance is used to control water reabsorption directly ADH
what triggers the conversion of angiotensinogen into angiotensin I renin
what is the tube that leads from the mouth to the stomach esophagus
what is the outermost layer of the GI wall called serosa
Which enzyme begins chemical digestion of starch in the mouth salivary amylase
In which environment does trypsin work the best basic like in the small intestine
In which section of the digestive system is pepsin secreted stomach
which accessory organ produces bile liver
what is the state of the respiratory system during quiet inihalaiton the diaphragm and the external intercostal muscles are contracted and the pressure in the alveoli is low.
what happens in the conducting zone air temperature gets modified to match body temperature, air humidity gets modified to match alveoli humidity and air gets filtered
how is carbon dioxide carried in blood dissolved in plasma, bound to hemoglobin, converted to bicarbonate
where does gas exchange occur between the alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries and between the blood and the tissue capillaries
what can shift the oxygen-hemoglobin dissociation curve to the right increase in hydrogen ion concentration, increase in concentration of carbon dioxide, increase in temperature
Affect sodium reabsorption which affects water reabsorption secondarily Aldosterone and ANP
affects water reabsorption directly ADH
The first step in moving oxygen to mitochondria in cells where it can be used for aerobic cellular respiration to make ATP is inhalation
Created by: klmd3014