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Westward Expansion

Westward Expansion and Civil War

TermDefinition
Manifest Destiny The belief that the U.S. was destined to spread from coast to coast in North America.
Louisiana Purchase France sold Louisiana Territory for $15 million (3 cents/acre) Because of a slave revolt by Toussaint Louverture, Napoleon wanted to sell French lands in North America.
Monroe Doctrine Declared by President James Monroe(1823) Told European powers to stay out of the Western Hemisphere and stated that the U.S. would protect Latin America from European colonization
Indian Removal Act Under President Andrew Jackson, Congress passed this law in 1830. It ordered the relocation of all Native tribes east of the Mississippi river
Trail of Tears Forced relocation of Native Americans who had refused to voluntarily move to “Indian Territory” (1838-1839). 16,00 Cherokee were relocated (4,00 died on the trial)
Underground Railroad Abolitionists who helped slaves flee north (Harriet Tubman, a runaway slave, helped)
Fugitive Slave Act All Americans were required to return runaway slaves. Many Northerners disobeyed this law
Frederick Douglass Escaped slavery, then wrote and spoke for Abolition.
John Brown’s Raid At Harper’s Ferry (1859): a failed attempt to get weapons to kill slave owners; many Northerners saw him as a martyr, most Southerners saw him as a terrorist.
Martyr A person who is killed because of their religious or other beliefs.
Emancipation Proclamation An executive order issued on January 1, 1863, by President Lincoln freeing slaves in all portions of the United States not then under Union control (that is, within the Confederacy).
Clara Barton A pioneering nurse who founded the American Red Cross. She worked as a hospital nurse in the American Civil War, and as a teacher and patent clerk.
13th Amendment Abolished “involuntary servitude” (slavery) in the U.S.
14th Amendment Former slaves were granted citizenship
15th Amendment “The right to VOTE shall not be denied because of race, color, or former slavery”
Freedmen’s Bureau Established to help former slaves and poor whites in the South in the aftermath of the U.S. Civil War.
Grandfather Clause A provision in which an old rule continues to apply to some existing situations while a new rule will apply to all future cases.
Jim Crow laws Written and unspoken “laws” that reinforced racism in the South. Examples: Poll taxes, literacy tests to vote, racial segregation, banned mixed-race marriage (miscegenation)
KKK The Ku Klux Klan a secret society that terrorized Blacks and other groups that fought to stop Reconstruction. Ex. Voter intimidation, lynching, and attacks on whites who tried to help blacks.
Black Codes Laws that kept former slaves from becoming equal citizens. Ex. Blacks could not hold meeting unless whites were present, could not travel without a permit, own guns, or sit on juries, and Segregation of society
sharecroppers A system of agriculture in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced.
Created by: gglez