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AA Met & Urea

USCSOM: Amino Acid Metabolism and Urea Cycle

QuestionAnswer
Dietary proteins are the primary source of ______ metabolized by the body. nitrogen
What catalyzes the activation of pepsin? H+
What catalyzes the activation of trypin? enteropeptidase
What catalyzes the activation of chymotrypsin? trypsin
What catalyzes the activation of elastase? trypsin
What catalyzes the activation of carboxypeptidases? trypsin
What is the general name for digestive proteases that hydrolyze peptide bonds within the chains? endopeptidases
What are some examples of endopeptidases? pepsin, trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase
What are the two exopeptidases? aminopeptidase and carboxypeptidases
What amino acids do pepsin cleave? aromatic and acidic AAs
What AA do trypsin cleave? Basic: Arg, Lys
What AA do chymotrypsin cleave? Hydrophobic: Phe, Tyr, Trp, Leu
What AA do elastase cleave? Small AAs: Ala, Gly, Ser
Describe trans-cellular transport mediated by secondary active transport Na-dependent AA transporters; Na-K ATPase pump; AA facilitated diffusion
In a fasting state, AA are converted mainly into what 2 AAs? Ala, Gln
What AA plays a central role in both AA synthesis and catabolism? Glu (Glutamate)
During AA synthesis, Glu donates/takes Amino N via transamination? donates
During AA catabolism, Glu donates/takes Amino N via transamination? takes
What to transamination enzymes play a role in Glutamate-AA synthesis and catabolism? GDH - glutamate dehydrogenase
PLP is derived from what nutrient? vitamin B6
The glutamate dehydrogenase reaction uses what cofactor? NAD or NADP
Excess amino acid N is converted to what toxic substance? ammonia
Ammonia is converted to what less toxic substance at physiological pH? ammonium
What organ converts ammonia to urea? liver
What is the major nitrogenous urinary excretory product? urea
What 2 AAs require PLP as a cofactor to form NH4+? Serine & Threonine
What AAs directly contribute their N to the formation of NH4+? Glutamate, Glutamine, Asparagine, Serine, Threonine, Histidine
What AA plays a major transport role for transport of ammonia in a non-toxic form for Urea Synthesis? alpha-kG to Glu to Gln
What 2 AAs do nitrogen come from the form urea? Glu and Asp
What is CPS1? carbamoyl phophate sythetase 1
What are the products in the urea cycle? ammonium, carbamoyl phosphate, citrulline, argininosuccinate, arginine, ornithine
What enzyme from the urea cycle is unique to the liver? arginase
What is NAG? N-acetyl glutamate
What is the role of NAG? formed from a build-up of ARg
What is the effect of fasting on urea excretion? increases during fasting
What is the ratio of Ala:glucose:urea 2:1:1
Created by: jlellerm