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Sociology C 3

Chapter 3 Culture

society a group of people who inhabit a specific territory and share a common culture
instincts innate (something you didn't learn - you just naturally know) patterns of behavior
culture knowledge, values, customs, and physical objects that are shared by the members of a society
reflex automatic reaction to physical stimuli
drive impulse to reduce discomfort
sociobiology the study of how biology influences human behavior
evolution a process of change from one point of development to another
hypothesis of linguistic relativity theory stating that our idea of reality depends largely upon language
exposure the state of being made known;
adjacent located next to or nearby
norm rules defining appropriate and inappropriate behavior
violation the action of violating someone or something
folkways norms that lack moral significance
taboo a rule of behavior, the violation of which calls for strong punishment
law a norm that is formally defined and enforced by officials
sanctions rewards and punishments that can be applied by most members of a group
formal sanctions sanctions imposed by persons given special authority
informal sanctions rewards or punishments that can be applied by most members of a group
values broad ideas about what is good or desirable
nonmaterial culture ideas, knowledge, and beliefs that influence people's behavior
material culture the concrete, tangible objects of a culture
beliefs ideas about the nature of reality
contrast dissimilar attributes among things with common natures
encounter to come across or meet
ideal culture cultural guidelines that group members claim to accept
real culture actual behavior patterns of members of a group
social categories groupings who share a social characteristic
subculture a group that is part of the dominate culture but that differs from it in some important respects
counterculture a subculture deliberately and consciously opposed to certain central beliefs or the dominate culture
ethnocentrism judging others in terms of one's own cultural standards
cultural universals general cultural traits that exist in all cultures
cultural pariculars the ways in which a culture expresses universal traits
Created by: ashbjj01