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UNIT 1 Test

TermDefinition
limited government's power is limited; (officials must also follow laws and cannot take advantage of their positions)
unlimited government's power is not limited in any way; (can do anything; leaders rule without restriction)
constitutional example of a limited government; government which gets its power from a constitution (plan of government)
totalitarian example of unlimited government; government with control over all aspects of life (does not allow dissent)
monarchy rule by one person can be limited or unlimited constitutional or absolute usually a king or queen, and inherited
dictatorship rule by one person unlimited power
oligarchy a few people have power and control the government
republic government in which power belongs to the citizens who give power to elected representatives who make decisions for them
democracy government in which citizens make decisions either directly or indirectly
direct type of democracy; people vote themselves on all decisions
representative (indirect) type of democracy; people elect representatives to make decisions for them
communism political and economic system in which the government controls the economy and owns the businesses; government controls life; (one political party runs government)
socialism economic system in which many businesses are owned and run by the government; government makes most economic decisions; (produce things for use, not for profit); (equality of individual wealth); (lack of competition in economy)
free enterprise (capitalism) economic system in which people own the businesses and make the economic decisions; (businesses can be run for profit); (limited government intervention)
agriculture economic sector; farming and ranching
manufacturing economic sector; produces goods in a factory
services economic sector; does something (work) for someone
import product shipped into a country
export product shipped out of a country
primary sources evidence produced by someone who participated in an event or lived during the time being studied; diary, personal letters
secondary sources descriptions or interpretations prepared by people who were not involved in the events described; textbooks, encyclopedias
century a period of 100 years
culture trait is a specific tradition a culture has
multiculturalism is the existence of many cultures in one area or country
cultural diffusion is the process of spreading a culture to new areas
globilization is the development of one world culture and an interdependent economy (economy where all countries depend on each other)
culture region is an area of the world in which most people share a similar culture (have one or more culture traits in common)
7 continents Asia, Antarctica, Europe, Africa, Australia, North America, South America
4 oceans Pacific, Atlantic, Indian, Arctic
absolute location specific point on the earth's surface, often found using latitude and longitude
relative location location of something in relation to something else, often using other landmarks or features
continent very large landmass on the earth
country a state or nation
state a nation with its own government occupying a particular territory
nation a large group of people with something in common like language, culture, ethnicity, and history, often having its own government
population density number of people per square mile
urban relating to a city
rural relating to the countryside
transportation corridor provides an easy way to move goods and people from one place to another; increases trade and migration
transportation barrier slows or prevents easy movement; decreases trade and migration
latitude horizontal lines; run east-west; measure distances north and south of the Equator; parallel-always same distance apart and never touch each other; also called Parallels; range from 0-90 degrees North and South
longitude vertical lines; run north-south; measure distances east and west of the Prime Meridian; not parallel-join at the poles; also called Meridians; range from 0-180 degrees East and West
equator 0 degrees Latitude
prime meridian 0 degrees Longitude
International Date Line 180 degrees Longitude
hemispheres half of the earth; Northern and Southern; Western and Eastern
Tropic of Cancer about 23 degrees North of the equator
Tropic of Capricorn about 23 degrees South of the equator
tropics the area between the Tropic of Cancer and Tropic of Capricorn; hot
Arctic Circle about 66 degrees North of the equator
Antarctic Circle about 66 degrees South of the equator
polar region from the Arctic and Antarctic Circles to the poles; cold
physical type of map that shows landforms, water features, and elevation
political type of map that shows the names and boundaries of countries
specialized (thematic) types of maps that show one specific subject or theme, such as climate or population density
legend/key explains the lines, symbols, and colors used on a map
scale shows the ratio between the distance on the map and the distance in real life
elevation shows the height above sea level
compass rose shows which way is north
culture a way of life for a group of people
culture elements categories of things that cultures have in common
15 culture elements are food, clothing, music, art, architecture, language, religion, holidays, sports/recreation,traditions, transportation, technology, education, government, economy
Created by: Mrs.Young
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