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Lipids

Biochemistry, Medicine, Phase 1

TermDefinition
Lipids triacylglyerols; hydrophobic (insoluble in water) but soluble in fat and organic solvents
Long hydrocarbon lipids fatty acids
Multiple linked aromatic rings steroids
Triacylglycerols (TAG)/ triglycerides ester of 3 fatty acids plus glycerol; used for long-term energy storage; stored in adipose tissue; fatty acid tails are released and broken down into two-carbon units
Fatty acid (FA)/ non-esterfied fatty acid (NEFA) molecule that has two chemically distinct regions; a hydrocarbon tail and a carbozylic acid head; long chain aliphatic carboxylic acids CH3(CH2)nCOOH; metabolised via beta-oxidation pathway to generate ATP (same pathway as glucose)
hydrocarbon tail long chain which is hydrophobic and a not very chemically reactive ; part of a fatty acid
carboxyl (-COOH) group head which behaves as an acid, ionises in aqueous solution is extremely hydrophilic and chemically reactive; links almost all fatty acid molecules to other molecules
Ampiphathic molecules that possess both hydrophobic and hydrophilic regions
Saturated fatty acid tails found in meat and dairy products; three straight fatty acid chains (tricylglycerol); no double bounds between its carbon atoms and contains the maximum number of hydrogens
Unsaturated fatty acid tails found in plants oils; may be mono- or polyunsaturated i.e. containing one or more double bond between its carbon atoms; results in non-straight fatty acids
palmitic acid (C16:0), stearic acid (C18:0) examples of saturated fatty acids
oleic acid (C18:1) examples of unsaturated fatty acids
linoleic acid (C:18:2, 9:12) examples of polyunsaturated (PUFA) fatty acids; an essential fatty acid
Phospholipids glycerol + 2FA and + phosphate containing group
Glycolipids glycerol + 2FA + sugars
Phospholipid bilayer membrane amphiphatic; polar (Carboxyl) group, non-polar FA tail, spontaneous form bi-layer in aqueous membrane
Steroids common multi-ring structure; cholesterol from diet and de novo synthesis; cholesterol has important role in membrane fluidity
Cholesterol precursor of steroid hormones e.g. testosterone, oestrogen, cortisol
Created by: emmaallde