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Chapter 6

AP US History

TermDefinition
Acadians French residents of Nova Scotia who were uprooted by the British in 1755 and scattered to Louisiana, where there descendants became known as "Cajuns"
Albany Congress inter-colonial congress summoned by the British govt. to foster greater colonial unity and assure Iroquois support in the escalating conflict with the French. It was rejected by colonial legislatures as providing too little autonomy; by British, too much
Coureurs de bois French fur-trappers who established trading posts in Ohio & Mississippi Valleys. Excessive slaughtering caused havoc on the folkways of their Native American partners, while disease & alcohol decimated their health.
Edict of Nantes (1598) Decree by the French crown granting limited toleration to French Huguenots (protestants) and ended religious wars. This allowed France to focus its energies on becoming a mighty empire in Europe and establish colonies in North America.
French & Indian War (1754-1763) was the portion of global conflict between British & French called Seven Years' War fought over global dominance to further mercantile policies
Huguenots French dissenters who were granted limited tolerance under the Edict of Nantes, but Louis XIV outlawed Protestantism in 1685, causing many to flee to British North America
King George's War (1744-1748) N.Am. theater of Europe's War of Austrian Succession that pitted colonists against French counterparts. Although colonists won a key French post, the peace settlement restored lost territories, leading to conflict between colonists & British govt.
King William's War (1689-1697) War fought between French trappers, British settlers & their respective Indian allies--part of the larger War of Augsburg in Europe, another global conflict between France & England & allies
Pontiac's uprising (1763) Bloody campaign waged by Ottawa chief to drive British out of the Ohio Country following the French expulsion from North America. It was brutally crushed by British troops who resorted to biological warfare (smallpox-infected blankets)
Proclamation of 1763 Decree issued by Parliament in the wake of Pontiac's uprising, prohibiting settlement beyond the Appalachians. Led to rising resentment of British rule in the colonies
Battle of Quebec (1759) historic British victory over French forces. The surrender marked the beginning of the end of French rule in N.America
Queen Anne's War (1702-1713) second conflict between European powers over control of N. America; colonists from England & France fought in the north, English vs. Spanish in south; The French gave Nova Scotia & Hudson Bay to British
regulars trained professional soldiers in the British military; during French & Indian War, British generals showed contempt for ill-trained & equipped colonial militias & conscripts (colonists drafted into service)
War of Jenkin's Ear small-scale clash between Britain & Spain in the Caribbean Islands and Georgia over British trading rights in Spanish America; became part of larger War of Austrian Succession in 1742
Samuel de Champlain soldier & explorer who earned the title "father of New France" and established friendly relations with Huron tribes and founded Quebec
William Pitt British leader during Seven Years' War, who concentrated efforts to take Quebec & Montreal, picking energetic leaders over old generals; known as the "great commoner"
James Wolfe young officer chosen by Pitt to lead the assault against Quebec; used daring night ascent on the rocky cliffs and defeated French on the Plains of Abraham outside the city; was mortally wounded
Edward Braddock arrogant British General whose contempt for colonial fighting tactics led to ill-advised attempt to capture Fort Duquesne; forces were routed by smaller French & Indian force & Braddock was mortally wounded
Louis XIV French monarch who reigned for 72 years and whose deep interest in overseas colonies spurred French exploration & colonization of North America; a zealous Catholic, he persecuted Huguenots
Jesuits French Catholic missionaries who labored zealously to convert Indians and played a vital role as explorers and geographers
salutary neglect period of British withdrawal of interference in the American colonies following the British triumph in Queen Anne's War in 1713. This period of autonomy proved to be fertile soil for roots of Independence
Fort Duquense French-held fort in western Pennsylvania that British failed to capture during opening stages of French & Indian War, emboldening Indians to embark on a warpath along frontier against British colonists
George Washington served as aide to Gen. Braddock in French & Indian War; was forced to surrender at Fort Duquense & returned to patrol frontier against Indian attacks
Benjamin Franklin colonial leader who published cartoon "join or die" in effort to bolster colonial unity in the defense against France; devised plan for colonial home rule during the Albany Congress, but plan was rejected by all sides
New Orleans fortified post established by France at the mouth of the Mississippi River to block Spanish expansion in the Gulf of Mexico; served as an outlet for fur & grain shipments from the interior
Created by: wm0397