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Chapter 1

Alien Encounters: Europe in the Americas

Conquistadors Soldiers and explorers of the Spanish Empire
Joint Stock Company A company stocks are owned jointly by the shareholders
Predestination Belief that everything that will happen has already been decided by god and cannot be changed
Antinomianism Against the Law
Arminianism A conviction that the supernatural was a complex and diverse web of power woven into every part of the natural world
Proprietor People who owned land
Treaty of Tordesillas Pope Alexander VI helped create, which splits the world of discoveries by drawing a north-south boundary line in 1494 between Spain & Portugal (Portugal got Africa while Spain got The New World)
Protestant Reformation Reform of the Church power and rule due to massive corruption, sale of indulgances payments for dead love one's for forgiveness to heaven Movement Launched in 1517 by Martin Luther.
House of Burgesses The first representative form of government in the American colonies Virgina 1619 Republic democratic. People elect officials to govern for them
Church of England (Anglican Church) Created by Henry VIII so he could divorce his wife. Later become the official Church of England.
Mayflower Compact A larger voyage of Pilgrims to Plymouth.
Toleration Act Maryland(1649) guaranteed freedom of religion to anyone, “professing to believe in Jesus Christ”. Created by Lord Baltimore.
Frame of Government A constitution for the province o Pennsylvania from Charles II to William Penn.
Christopher Columbus Intelligent, dedicated and skillful mariner. Seeking a way to China, Japan and Indies. Discover New World . Voyage was financed by Queen Isabella of Spain. August 1492 Columbus set sail for the New World.
Prince Henry(Henry The Navigator) Henry the navigator, Portuguese. Created New Navigation school. Updating or creating inventions for navigation at sea.
John Cabot Italian Navigator and explorer. 1497 discovery of parts of North America.
Martin Luther Church reform movement launched by Luther. 95 Theses(changes to the corruption of the church). Translated the bible to German so all could read and see the lies and corruption of the Church.
John Calvin Carried Luther's movement forward, made protest more efficient. Calvin’s brilliance and charismatic leadership of Luther led a successful movement leading to the rupture of Christendom.
Henry VIII Wanted a divorce from Catherine(no male baby birth)Church would not allow divorce. Broke away from the Church, created the Anglican Church declaring himself the head of Church. Divorcing Catherine, England becomes a Protestant Nation.
Sir Walter Raleigh English writer and explorer 1589 established a colony which he named Virginia for Queen Elizabeth.
Richard Hakluyt English writer, promoted the settlement of North America(Divers Voyages Touching the Discovery of America, his book).
Queen Elizabeth I (1558-1603) Anglican church official church for Britain more interested in Politics than religion.
London Company Was to colonize southern Virginia joint stock company got a charter(license, grant).
John Smith A Governor of Virginia, made colonist work for a surplus of food for winter. Wanted to take advantage of Native Americans.Captured By Natives, Saved by Pocahontas. Left Jamestown after 2 years.
Puritans Objected the richy decor, music, cloths, candles, incense.Insisted in emphasis on reading the bible encourage ordinary worships. Wanted to “Purify” Anglicanism.
Separatist More radical Puritans. Members from the church of Scrooby who Separated from the Anglican Church, declaring it corrupt beyond salvage
Pilgrims People who traveled by boat to the americas created the first permanent settlement in New England Of Plymouth in September 1620.
William Bradford Pastor 16 years old of the Separatists.First Governor of Plymouth. The first 30 years of the Pilgrims colony has been preserved in Of Plymouth Plantation written by Bradford.
Squanto An english speaking Indian, served as an interpreter, showed the Pilgrims the best places to fish and what to plant how to cultivate. First thanksgiving feast.
John Winthrop English Prian Lawyer, leading figures in the founding of Massachusetts bay colony.
Roger Williams Williams-Certified saint, extreme separatist, established the colony of Rhode Island and providence Plantation, all religions tolerated(freedom of religion), Church & state rigidly seated
Anne Hutchinson “visible Saint” midwife, discussed occasionally criticized the sermons of their Minister John Winthrop. Emphasizing the obligation of the saved to lead morally pure lives, earliest German Protestants.
Lord Baltimore One of the first proprietors(Maryland). Right to establish feudal Manors, hold people in Serfdom, make laws. Created Toleration Act (1649).
Duke of York -Brother of Charles II. War with the Dutch, taking New Amsterdam(New York) offered land and established freedom of religion and a democratic system of local government.
Quakers Believed that they could communicate directly with their maker their religion required neither ritual nor ministers,Originally a sect emotional to the point of fanaticism.
William Penn Wealthy ENglish admiral, QUaker, Colonized Pennsylvania, treated Indians fairly, Individual rights protected. Helped the colony to prosper and grow rapidly.
Created by: Max Stacks



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