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Intro + Carbohy.

Biochemistry, Medicine, Phase 1

TermDefinition
Monomers (1) a type of molecule that bonds to other molecules to form polymers; the most basic biomolecule
Monomers (2) sugars, nucleotides, fatty acids, amino acids
Polymers (1) made up of smaller subunits of molecules
Polymers (2) glycogen, RNA and DNA, tricylgycerols, phospholipids, proteins
Sugar monomers glucose, fructose
Sugar polymer glycogen, sucrose
Stearic acid example of a fatty acid
Fatty acids and fatty acid polymers function in long-term fat storage; structural component of membranes
Sugars function in short-term fuel for muscle, brain, kidney, etc.
RNA and DNA genetic information
Other biomolecules cholesterol/ steroid hormones, vitamins, co-factors, xenobiotics
Carbohydrates (Sugars) monosaccharides; water soluble (hydrophilic and polar), function as an energy source (glucose) or a energy storage module (glycogen); structurally part of cell walls in bacteria
Protein function of sugars cell surface proteins are often glycosylated (e.g. ABO blood groups and IgG
(CH2O)n general formula for carbohydrates; usually 3, 4, 5 or 6
Triose C3 (sugars) glyceraldehyde, dihydroxyacetone
Pentose C5 (sugars) ribose
Hexoses C6 (sugars) glucose, fructose
Aldose and ketose Isomers (same chemical formula)
Aldoses sugar, isomer molecule, contains the aldehyde group (−CH=O), glucose is an example;
Ketoses contains the keto group, example is fructose
−CH=O Aldehyde group
Cn(H2O)n Aldose chemical formula
Aldoses they have at least one asymmetric carbon center, aldoses with three or more carbon atoms exhibit stereoisomerism
Stereoisomers isomeric molecules that have the same molecular formula and sequence of bonded atoms (constitution), but differ in the three-dimensional orientations of their atoms in space; make only minor changes in the chemical properties of the sugar
d- form or l- form aldoses containing stereogenic centers can exist in either; d-sugar is more common in biological organisms; humans use d-sugar
C6H1206 glucose chemical formula
galactose, mannose isomers for glucose; differ only in their spatial arrangements around one or two carbon atoms
Isomer differences recognised by enzymes and other proteins are therefore can have important biological effects
Optical isomers mirror-image pairs of molecules
Glycosidic bonds link together monosaccharides; glycosyltransferase links the two monosaccharides together and results in the production of water
Disaccharides two linked monosaccharides; e.g. sucrose = fructose + glucose
Condensation reaction in which a molecule of water is expelled as the bond is formed; when an -OH group on one sugar and an -OH ground on another form a bond; also used by nucleic bonds; reverse process of hydrolysis
Carbonyl group located in the middle of a ketose on the end of an aldose
Carbon 1 carbon at the end closest to the carbonyl group
Linear form make up less than 1% of hexoses
Anomeric carbon carbon attached to the original carbonyl group in cyclic form
Ring formation in aqueous solution, the aldehyde or ketone group of a sugar molecule tends to react with a hydroxyl group of the same molecule, thereby closing the molecule into a ring
alpha and beta forms the hydroxyl group on the carbon that carries the aldehyde or ketone group can rapidly change from one position to another; these are the two positions; become frozen when a sugar bonds
alpha form hydroxyl group is facing up
beta form hydroxyl group is facing down
Monosaccharides glucose, fructose, galactose
Disaccharide sucrose (glucose + fructose), maltose (glucose + glucose), lactose (galactose + glucose)
Polysaccharides glycogen (branched glucose polymer), amylose (linear glucose polymer)
Glycosidic bond formation of maltose alpha-D-glucose + alpha-D-glucose; water is produced; the first glucose bonds at carbon 1 and the other at carbon 4
Reducing sugar if an anomeric carbon is not attached to another molecule; the aldehyde or ketose group is free; all monosaccharides
Glycogen glucose polysaccharide, linear glucose polymer (alpha 1>4) with alpha (1>6) branchs
Step 1 of digestion of glycogen in diet digestion of alpha-amylase random hydrolysis of internal alpha (1>4) linkages
Step 2 of digestion of glycogen in diet pancreatic alpha-amylase mixture of mono and disaccharides continues hydrolysis of internal alpha (1>4) linkages
Step 3 of digestion of glycogen in diet maltase produces glucose which can absorbed by the intestinal mucosal cells
Mobilisation of glycogen in the liver glycogen phosphorylase hydrolyses terminal alpha (1>4) to produce glucose-1-phosphate
Lactose intolerance normally lactase: lactose > galactose and glucose; undigested lactose can be digested by bacteria in the large intestine producing excess carbon dioxide and other metabolites which result in bloating and diarrhoea
Created by: emmaallde