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8th Chap 2 Questions

Chapter 2 Daily Lecture and Discussion Notes

Marco Polo's book, Travels, written in 1296-97, described what? His travels to Asia
The cities of Venice, Genoa, and Pisa became the center of the growing trade in what goods? Spices, silks, perfumes, and precious stones
What was the Renaissance? A period of renewed interest in classical Greek and Roman learning
What was an effect of the Renaissance? It encouraged Europeans to pursue new ideas and challenges and set the stage for exploration and discovery
What caused a spark in foreign trade and travel outside of the European region? The development of large nation-states in Western Europe
Which nations' monarchies looked for ways to increase their power and wealth? Spain, Portugal, England, and France
What technological advances helped navigators more accurately determine direction and location? Better maps and navigational instruments, such as the astrolabe and compass
Large and studier sailing vessels, such as the caravel, enabled what? Sailors to travel faster and carry more people, cargo, and food.
What new routes were Portugal and Spain searching for? New routes to Asia
What were the three West African kingdoms that flourished? Ghana, Mali, and Songhai
Ghana's trade in what goods contributed to its prosperity? Gold and salt
Mansa Musa, a great king, ruled what African empire from 1312 to 1337? Mali
What became the largest empire, which rose in the 1400s, in the history of West Africa? Songhai
Why did great empires arise in Africa? the resources of the land, the trade with North Africa, and power rulers
What country was the leader in early exploration? Portugal
Prince Henry of Portugal, also known as Henry the Navigator, did what? set up a center for exploration so that scientists could share their knowledge with shipbuilders and sailors
Ships sailed south along the coast of West Africa where gold and ivory were traded and slaves were bought
In 1487, Bartholomeu Dias sailed around what part of Africa? the Cape of Good Hope
Vasco de Gama sailed where in 1498? India
What group of people reached North America and established settlements in Iceland and Greenland in the 800s and 900s? The Vikings
In 1492, Christopher Columbus set out with three ships to find a route to Asia and encountered The Bahamas
What other areas did Christopher Columbus explore during three additional journeys? Hispaniola, Cuba, and Jamaica and sailed along the coasts of Central America and northern South America
What did the Treaty of Tordesillas clarify for Spain and Portugal? The line of demarcation between their lands in the Americas, giving Spain control of all the lands to the west of the line and Portugal control of all the lands east of the line
Who mapped South America's coastline in 1499? Amerigo Vespucci
Vasco Nunez de Balboa reached and claimed what for Spain? The Pacific Ocean
What did Ferdinand Magellan discover sailing from Spain in 1519? A passage to the Pacific through a strait along the tip of South America
The Conquistadors, who settled in America, received what from Spanish rulers? land grants in exchange for one-fifth of gold or treasures taken from the Americas
In 1521, what did explorer Hernan Cortes do? Conquered the Aztec capital of Tenochtitlan, took their emperor Montezuma prisoner, and gained control of the region
In 1532, what did explorer Francisco Pizarro do? Captured the Inca ruler Atahualpa and later gained control of the Inca Empire
What three things aided the Spanish conquistadors to conquer great North American empires? Their strong armies using guns, cannons, and horses; the help of Native Americans in overthrowing many existing rulers; because the Native Americans had no immunity to European diseases, many of them became sick and died
What did Spanish conquistadors hope to find in the southeastern and southwestern parts of North America? riches
What was Juan Ponce de Leon searching for when he landed in Florida in 1513? the "fountain of youth"
Many conquistadors search for wealth and lost their lives looking for this place "Seven Cities of Cibola"
Alvar Nunez Cabeza de Vaca and Panfelo de Narvaez explored what two places? Florida and the coast of Mexico
What areas did Hernando de Soto explore in 1541? The southeastern region of North America, crossing the Mississippi and traveling as far west as present-day Oklahoma
Francisco Vasquez de Coronado traveled thought where searching for gold? northern Mexico and present-day Arizona and New Mexico
What three kinds of settlements did the Spanish establish in the Americas Pueblos, Missions, and Presidios
The hierarchy of the social classes from upper to lower included Peninsulares, creoles, mestizos, Native Americans, enslaved Africans
What was encomiendas? A system developed by the Spanish that allowed conquistadors to demand taxes and labor from the Native Americans living on the land
Who was Bartolome de Las Casas? A priest who condemned the harsh treatment of Native Americans under encomiendas
What was the result of the plantation system developed by the Spanish in the Americas? Slave labor became an essential part of the Spanish and Portuguese economies
Martin Luther began what change in Europe in the 1500s? His opposition to the Catholic Church began the Protestant Reformation
What did John Calvin believe? That God had already chosen those who would be saved
Why did the exploration of the Americas create rivalry between European countries? because the colonies provided resources and a market to sell European products
What was the Columbian Exchange? a two-way exchange between the Americas and Europe, Asia, and Africa that included crops, livestock, slaves, and diseases
What did John Cabot establish for England in 1497? claims in North America after landing on the coast of Newfoundland
What was the Northwest Passage? a search by England, France, and the Netherlands for a more direct route to Asia to compete with Spain and Portugal
Where did Giovanni de Varranzo explore for France in 1524? explored the coast of North America from present-day Nova Scotia to the Carolinas
Where did Jacques Cartier sail? He sailed up the St. Lawrence River and founded Mont-Royal (Montreal)
Where did Henry Hudson sail in 1609? He sailed and explored the Hudson River as far north as Albany and discovered the Hudson Bay
In what way were France and the Netherlands interested in the Americas? They were interested in economic opportunities, not building an empire.
Samuel de Champlain established what in Canada? a trading post for fur trading in Quebec
Created by: veroncia.crim
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