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Cells and Organelles

Phase 1

Cells (1) the basis of all living things
Higher level organisms composed by "communities of cells"
Individualised cells cells of specialised function within "communities" which makes up higher level organisms
Cells (2) semi-independent, living unit within living things; completely independent in unicellular organisms; in which are cited mechanisms for metabolism, growth and replication (via division)
Basic cellular composition an aqueous solution of organic molecules surrounded by a membrane
Organelle a subunit within a cell; defined structure; usually bounded by membranes
Ribosome an un-bounded organelle
Tissue an organised assembly of cells and their extracellular products; this assembly of cells carry out similar and coordinated activities within the body
Connective, lympoid examples of tissue; assembled cells with similar functions
Organ an assembly of tissues coordinated to perform specific functions within the body
Eye, ear, heart, lungs, liver examples of organs
Prokaryote (1) a single-celled organism in which the chromosome is a circular strand lying free in the cell and has no membranous organelles
Prokaryote (2) a single-celled organism that contains no nucleus and no membranous organelles
Eukaryote (1) a single or multi-celled organism in which the chromosomes are enclosed in the nucleus; typically have cytoplasmic, membrane-bound organelles;
Eukaryote (2) single or multi-celled organisms where DNA is divided into a series of linear chromosomes and considerable differences occur between cells within the same organism
Eukaryote (3) plants, fungi, animals, protozoa, algae
Virus (1) an assemblage of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) and proteins along with other molecules which is parasitic of prokaryotes/eukaryotes; not cells or organisms
Nucleic acid and proteins major components of a virus
Virus (2) invade cells, subvert their protein synthesis to make more of themselves instead of normal cell proteins, then escape to infect other cells
Virus (3) lacks a plasma membrane and only operates chemically within a host cell
0.2-2.0 micro m diametre of a prokaryotic cell
10-100 micro m diametre of a eukaryotic cell
ER, Golgi bodies, lysosomes, mitochondria, chloroplasts eukaryotic organelles that contain phospholipid membranes
9+2 arrangement of microtubules in flagella and cilia as opposed to amboid action
Flagella used for motility in prokaryotes (1)
Flagella and cilia used for motility in eukaryotes
Fimbriae and pilli used for motility in prokaryotes (2)
Internal membrane found in all eukaryotes but only in prokaryote organisms that undergo photosynthesis; allows for specialised environments to exist within organelles; allows for different functions to operate under different conditions (e.g. pH)
Cytoskeleton protective layer found only in eukaryotes; composed of protein filaments
Cell wall made of peptidoglycan in bacteria (thick in gram positive, thin in gram negative); made of pseudopeptidoglycan or polysaccharides or glycoprotein in Archaea bacteria
Binary fusion asexual reproduction found in prokaryotic organsims
Mitosis and/or meiosis asexual and sexual reproduction found in eukaryotic cells
Capsule or slime layer external layer of prokaryotic cells
Pellicle or shell external layer of certain parasites
Cell theory all living things are made up of cells and these arrive through the division of pre-existing cells
Nucleolus, histomes, lysosomes, Golgi, ER, mitotic spindles organelles only found in eukaryotes
Plasma membrane found in eukaryotes and prokaryotes, contains sterols in eukaryotes
Electron microscope imaging the only tool that can reveal subcellular details of a cell; involves elaborative preparation and can only be used to dead cells; e.g. TEM and SEM
Transmission electron microscope (TEM) used to look inside a (electrons go through the specimen)
Scanning electron microscope (SEM) used to look at the surface of a cell (electrons scatter off cell surface by heavy metal coating)
Limitations on the maximum size of a cell diffusion over 50 micro meters is no longer efficient; surface area to volume needs to be considered; distance from nucleus to periphery influences movement of intermediates, waste products and nutrients
Flick's law rate of diffusion proportional to (SA x concentration^n difference)/ distance
Solutions to Flick's law thin processes (directed transport of substances around cell cytoskeleton e.g. neurones, oligodendrocytes); giant multinucleate cells (gene expression in more than one place, e.g. skeletal muscle cells); gap junctions
Actin, microtubules, intermediate filaments protein filaments that make up cytoskeleton; all contribute to mechanical strength, control shape, drive and guide movement of materials
Actin thinnest protein filament in cytoskeleton (muscle)
Microtubules thickest protein filament in cytoskeleton; pulls daughter cells apart
Intermediate filaments give a cell its mechanical strength; protein filament in cytoskeleton
Cytosol aqueous environment within the plasma membrane
Cytoplasm cytosol + organelles
Nucleus (1) largest organelle in the cell (diam. 3-10 micro metres)
Nucleus (2) only organelle clearly visible by light microscopy
Nucleus (3) contains genetic material that is packaged
Chromosome organised DNA within the nucleus of a eukaryote
Chromatin complex of DNA/histone and non-histone proteins; found in chromosomes
Nucleusomes DNA wound around histones
1.8m length of "naked" human DNA
95mm length of DNA packaged into nucleosomes
120 micrometers DNA condensed in mitosis
Nucleolus where rDNA is transcribed and ribosome subunits assembled
Nuclear envelope surrounded by two layers of membrane, contains nucleus
Nuclear pores allows transport in and out of nucleus
Smooth and rough endoplasmic reticulum organelles that function in secretion; found in ECs
Smooth ER involved in the biosynthesis of lipids, steroids; metabolise carbohydrates/steroids
Rough ER coated with ribosomes which are the sites of translation ie protein production/ secretion or insertion into cell membrane; proteins are folded hear and vesicles are bundled and transported to Golgi
Golgi body (1) 4-8 closely-stacked, membrane-bound channels; modifies proteins delivered from RER by adding sugar or lipid side-chains (example); synthesises or packages materials to be secreted
Golgi body (2) transports lipids around the cell; directs proteins to their correct compartment ; creates lysosomes
Secretory vesicles bud off from the Golgi; fuse with the inner surface of the plasma membrane and release in their contents via exocytosis (inc. hormones, neurotransmitters); used to ID Golgi bodies under a microscope
Lysosomes (1) type of vesicle; electro-dense spheres (80-800 nm diam.); protein, RNA and DNA degradation/recycle/excrete
Lysosomes (2) powerful enzymes that require low pH; their proteins are tagged with mannose -6- phosphate; appear dark under staining
Peroxisomes large (0.5-1.5 micro meter) vesicles; not very electron dense; detox; phospholipid synthesis; enzymes which generate and degrade H202; do not appear as dark as lysosomes when stained
Zellweger Syndrome inherited absence of peroxisomes
Mitochondria (1) organelles highly involved with metabolic activity; their number per cell reflects metabolic activity; oxidises sugars to generate ATP (Krebs cycle)
Mitochondria (2) organelle which contains its own DNA which encodes some of its own proteins
Cristae inner membrane folds of mitochondria which increase the sugar area of the organelle
Kerbs cycle enzymes located on different parts of the cristae
Myoclonic Epilepsy with Ragged Red Fibres (MERRF syndrome) organelle disease; mutation of mitochondrial gene for tRNA-lys; disrupts synthesis of oxidate phosphorylation enzymes
Hutchinson-Gilford Progeria organelle disease; mutation in lamin A of nuclear envelope; distorted shape of nucleus (blebbed); production of unique progerin protein as opposed to lamin A;
Tay Sachs Disease mutation of lysosomal hexosaminidase-A enzyme; causes accumulation of ganglioside that neurotoxic; causes a progressive deterioration of nerve cells and of mental and physical abilities from 6 months
Created by: emmaallde



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