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7th Chap 2 Ques

Chapter 2 Earth's Physical Geography

QuestionAnswer
What is the hot, dense layer of rock surrounding the Earth's core called? mantle
What percent of the planet's water is salt water? 97%
What is the usual, predictable patterns of weather in an area over many years called? climate
The careful use of resources to avoid wasting them is called conservation
Chemicals in air pollution can combine with precipitation to form what? acid rain
What are areas that have similar patterns of temperature and precipitation also known as? climate zones
The theory that explains how continents were formed and why they move is called plate tectonics
What is the name given to the plateau that lies off the coast of each continent and stretches for several miles underwater? continental shelf
What factors affect the weather? sun, wind, water, and landforms
In what ways do humans affect the environment? Humans can change the environment, when they pollute the air, water, and ground, or cut down trees.
What are the three layers that make up the Earth? core, mantle, crust
The three forces that shape the Earth are plate tectonics, weathering, and erosion
Forces within, wind, water, and ice are all physical processes that shape the Earth's surface
The forces of plate tectonics, weathering, and erosion have what direct effects? earthquakes and volcanoes, rocks split or are eaten away, and rock and soil is moved or worn away
The area at the center of the Earth, which includes a solid inner part and a hot liquid outer part is the core
The inner core is composed of hot iron mixed with other metals (nickel) and rocks
The outer core is so hot it is liquid metal and can reach temperatures of 8,500 degree Farenheit
The mantle is Earth's thickest layer found between the core and the crust.
What is magma? Rock found in the outer mantle that can be moved, shaped, and melted.
Which layer of the Earth is its thickest layer? The mantle
What is lava? Hot melted rock, also called magma, inside the Earth that flows to the surface when a volcano erupts.
The crust is the uppermost layer of the Eartha and includes the ocean floors and the seven continents.
Forces both inside and outside the Earth work to change the appearance of Earth's surface.
The Earth's crust changes over time as new landforms are created and existing ones change forms.
What is plate tectonics? a scientific theory that explains how processes within the Earth form continents and cause their movement.
Which best describes continental drift? As plates on the Earth's crust move, the continents on top of them move.
The name of the gigantic landmass that existed about 200 million years ago is Pangaea
When continental plates meet plates collide and push against each other with great force causing land along the line where plates meet to rise and form mountains.
When continental and oceanic plate meet the thinner ocean plates slide underneath the thicker continental plates causing magma to build up, erupt and slowly harden, forming volcanic mountains.
Which best describes earthquakes? sudden and violent movements of the Earth’s crust that shakes the land, and can cause great damage.
Faults or cracks in the Earth's crust occur when two plates move alongside each other
Which best defines weathering? a process in which rock is broken into smaller pieces by water and ice, chemicals, or even plants
Chemicals cause weathering too when acids in air pollution mix with rain & fall back to Earth, eating away at rock and stone surfaces.
The process by which weathered bits of rock are moved elsewhere by water, wind, and ice is known as erosion
Earth has a variety of landforms and many of the landforms can be found both on the continents and the ocean floors.
On land, landforms include mountains, hills, valleys, flatlands, and plateaus.
Under the oceans, landforms include continental shelves and trenches.
People chose a place to live based on climate and the availability of resources.
What percentage of the earth is covered in water? 70%
Roughy 3% of the planet's water is freshwater and includes ice in polar regions and mountains, groundwater, aquifers, lakes and rivers.
The four parts of the water cycle are evaporation, condensation, precipitation, and collection.
Which best describes weather? refers to the changes in temperature, wind direction and speed, and air moisture that take place over a short period of time
Which best describes climate? a pattern of weather that takes place in an area over many years
What helps to distribute the sun’s heat more evenly around the Earth? the movement of air and water over Earth.
Air in the Tropics moves north and south toward the Poles of the Earth
Air in the Poles moves toward the Equator.
What are prevailing winds? Wind patterns that are similar over time.
Major storms develop when moist, warm air rises and meets dry, cold air
Hurricanes and typhoons arise in the warm waters of the tropics and can reach great size and power.
Hurricanes occur in the western Atlantic and the eastern Pacific Oceans.
Typhoons occur in the western Pacific Ocean.
The steadily flowing stream of water in the ocean are called currents.
What change causes El Nino and La Nina? Every few years, changes in normal wind and water patterns in Pacific Ocean cause unusual weather in some places.
What occurs during El Nino? heavy rain falls on western South America, causing floods; little rain falls in Australia and southern Asia and Africa; North America may see severe storms
What occurs during La Nina? cool waters and low rainfall in the eastern Pacific; heavier rains and greater chance of typhoons in the western Pacific; the opposite of El Niño.
Landforms, especially mountains, can affect winds, temperature, and rainfall.
What three things influence climate? The shape of the land, the distance between landforms, and nearness to water.
Which best describes local winds? wind patterns typical of a small area.
Which best describes rain shadow effect? warm, moist ocean air moves up mountain slopes, cools and releases moisture;the windward side receives large amounts of rainfall whereas the leeward side stays dry and cool (often forming deserts).
What four things combine to create different climate zones? The effects of wind, water, latitude, and landforms .
What are climate zones? Areas that have similar patterns of temperature and rainfall, and may have similar vegetation.
Areas with particular kinds of plants and animals adapted to conditions there are also known as biomes
The five major climate zones are tropical, dry, midlatitude, high latitude, and highland.
Which best describes urban climates? Weather patterns in cities, including higher temperatures and distinct wind patterns, as compared to nearby rural areas.
Example of human activity having negative impacts (causing pollution) on the environment include people burning oil, coal, or gas to make electricity, to power factories, or to move cars.
Chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) comes from burning of coal and oil and destroy the ozone layer.
The buildup of certain gases in Earth’s atmosphere that, like a greenhouse, retain the sun’s warmth is known as The Greenhouse Effect
Proponents of the Greenhouse Effect argue that pollution is raising the temperature of earth causing climate changes to melt ice caps and thus, sea levels will rise and flood coastal areas.
Nonpolluting forms of energy include wind and solar power.
Another name for the Earth's crust is the Lithosphere.
Some human activities that have a negative effect on the environment include farming, logging, and mining.
Contour plowing is a technique in which farmers plow along the curves of the land rather than in straight lines.
Crop rotation is changing what crop farmers plant in a field from year to year.
Deforestation is cutting down forests without replanting them.
Why is deforestation bad for the Earth's environment? because when tree roots are gone, there is nothing to hold the soil; forests support the water cycle and replaces oxygen; and the forest is also home to many plants and animals,
The Hydrosphere refers to the Earth's surface and groundwater.
Why is conserving water important to human beings? because water is vital to human life and the amount of fresh water on Earth is limited.
Conservation means the careful use of resources to avoid wasting them.
The process in which water is collected and distributed to crops is irrigation
Pesticides are powerful chemicals that farmers use to kill crop destroying insects.
An ecosystem is a place shared by plants and animals that depend on one another for survival.
The variety of plants and animals living on the planet is known as biodiversity.
Created by: veroncia.crim
 

 



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